Anthelmintic Potency of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Meal on West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep

Main Article Content

F. T. Adelusi
O. Eniola
S. A. Adedokun
A. B. Alarape

Abstract

A 90-day study was conducted to determine the response of semi intensively managed West African dwarf sheep to concentrate supplement containing varying levels of neem leaf meal (NLM). Twenty (20) West African Dwarf sheep aged 5 to 6 months with an average weight of 10kg were used in a Completely Randomized Design with animals grouped into four treatments of five replicates each balanced for weight. The animals were allowed to graze on natural pastures predominantly made up of Panicum maximum in the morning with a daily supplementation of 100g concentrate diet containing varying levels of neem leaf meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. Blood samples were taken from the animals before the commencement of the experiment and at the end of the experiment. At the start of the experiment, faecal samples were collected from each animal to determine the faecal egg count and this was repeated once in three weeks for the 90 day experimental period. There was significant (P < 0.05) difference in the haematology indices studied with no definate pattern. The inclusion of NLM in the diets of West African Dwarf sheep significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the faecal egg counts across the treatments with a percentage reduction range of 33.38 to 88.00% for sheep on 0% and 5% NLM, respectively. This study, however, concluded that neem leaf inclusion at 5% in West African dwarf sheep’s diet had effects on the overall performance of the animals with a potential improvement in drastic reduction in faecal egg counts.

Keywords:
Haematology, faecal egg counts, A. indica, West African dwarf sheep.

Article Details

How to Cite
Adelusi, F. T., Eniola, O., Adedokun, S. A., & Alarape, A. B. (2019). Anthelmintic Potency of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Meal on West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep. Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, 11(2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajaar/2019/v11i230047
Section
Original Research Article

References

Faye D, Leak S, Nouala S, Fall A, Losson B. Effects of gastrointestinal helminth infections and plane of nutrition on the health and productivity of F1 (West African Dwarf Sahelian) goat Crosses in the Gambian Small Ruminant Research. 2003;50:153-161.

Gatongi PM, Scott ME, Ranyan S, Gathuma JM, Munyan WK, Cheruiyot H, Prichard RK. Effects of three Nematode anthelmitic treatment regimes on flock performance of sheep and goats under extensive management in Semi-arid Kenya. Veterinary Parasitol. 1997;68:323-326.

Tinar R, Akyol CV, Cirak VY, Senlik B, Bauer C. Investigations on the seasonal patterns of strongyle infections in grazing lambs, and the occurences of antihelminthic resistance on sheep and goat farms in Western Anatolia, Turkey. Parasitol Research. 2005;96:18-23.

David S. Approaches to managing gastrointestinal nematode parasites. Agricultural Research Service, USDA. 2010;1999-2012.

Chandrawathani P, Yusoff N, Wan LC, Ham A, Waller PJ. Total anthelmintic failure to control nematode parasites of small ruminants on government breeding farm in Sabah, East Malaysia. Verterinary Research Communication. 2004;28:203-214.

Chandrawathani P, Adnan M, Waller PJ. Anthelmintic resistance in sheep and goat farms on peninsular Malaysia. Veterinary Parasitology. 1999;82:305-310.

Chandrawathani P, Adnan M, Zaini CM. Preliminary STUDIES ON NEEM (Azadirachta indica) as an alternative anthelmintic for sheep. Proceedings of the 12th Veterinary Association Malaysia Scientific Congress, Malaysia, Kuantan; 2000.

Chandrawathani P, Brelin D, Nor Fasihah S, Adnan M, Jammah O, Sani RA, Hoglund J, Waller PJ. Evaluation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) as a herbal anthelmintic for nematode parasite control in small ruminants in Malaysia. Tropical Biomedicine. 2002;19(1-2):41-48.

Miller JEM, Bahirathan LS, Lamarie GF, Hembry TM, Kearney, Barras RS. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in suffolk and gulf coast native sheep with special emphasis on relative susceptibility to Haemonchus concortus. Infection Veterinary Parasitol. 1998;74:55-74.

Schlam OM, Jain NC, Carrol EJ. Veterinary haematology. 3rd Version, Lea and Febrigen, Philadelphia, USA. 1995;15-18.

Dacie JV, Lewis SM. Practical haematology. 6th Edition, Church Livington Edinburgh. Melbourne. New York. 1984;24-26.

SAS. Statistical Analysis System Users Guide. Statistical Version 8th edition, Statistical Analysis System Institute INC, Cary. N.C; 1999.

Duncan DB. Multiple range and multiple f- tests biometrics. 1955;11:1-42.

Jain NC. Essentials of veterinary haematology. Lea and Ferbeiger, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 1993;7.

Opara MN, Udevi N, Okoli IC. Haematological parameters and blood chemistry of apparently healthy West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats in Owerii, South Eastern Nigeria. N Y. Sci. J. 2010;3:68-72.

Taiwo VO, Ogunsanmi AO. Haematology, plasma, whole blood and erythrocyte biochemical values of clinically healthy captive-reared grey duiker (Sylvicarpa grimmia) and West African dwarf sheep and goats in Ibadan, Nigeria. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2003;58(2–3).

Kaneko JJ. Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals. Fifth ed. Academic Press, New York, USA. 1997;885-905.

Patra AK, Sharma K, Dutta N, Pattanik AK. Response of gravid does to partial replacement of dietary protein by a leaf meal mixture of clonical chemistry. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company. 2003;809-861.

Belewu MA, Ogunsola FO. Haematological and serum indices of goat fed fungi treated jatropha curcas kernel cake in a mixed ration. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development. 2010;2(3):035-038.

Ajala OO, Oyeyemi MO, Oke AO, Alakpa CO. Haematological and biochemical parameters in West African dwarf (WAD) bucks fed diets containing Milletia thonningii. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2000;3:121–124.

Tambuwal FM, Agaie BM, Bangama A. Haematological and Biomedical values of apparently healthy red sokoto goats. In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production (NSAP), 17-21 March 2002, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. 2002;50-53.

Taiwo VO, Ogunsanmi AO. Haematology, plasma, whole blood and erythrocyte biochemical values of clinically healthy captive-reared grey duiker (Sylvicarpa grimmia) and West African dwarf sheep and goats in Ibadan, Nigeria. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2003;58(2–3).

Scott JL, Ketheesan N, Summers PM. leucocyte population changes in the reproductive tract of the ewe in response to insemination. Reproductive Fertility and Development. 2006;18:627-634.

Coles EH. Veterinary clinical pathology (4th Edition). W. B Sunders Company, Harcourt Brace Jovanovidi, Inc; 1986.

Daramola JO, Adeloye Fatoba TA, Soladoye AO. Haematological and biochemical parameters of West African dwarf goats. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2005;17(8).

Jawasreh K, Awawdeh F, Bani Ismail Z, Al-Rawashdeh O, Al-Majali A. Normal haematology and selected biochemical values in different genetic lines of Awassi ewes in Jordan. The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2010;7(2).

Merck. The merck veterinary manual. 5th edition. Siegmund OH. (ed), Merck and Co. sInc. Rahway, New Jersey, USA. 1979;167.

Akinyemi AF, Alokan JA, Fajemisin AN. Digestibility, nitrogen balance and haematological profile of West African dwarf sheep fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera supplement to Panicum maximum. Journal of Animal Sciences. 2010;6:634-643.

Ogbuewu IP, Uchegbu MC, Okoli IC, Iloeje MU. Assessment of blood chemistry, weight gain and linear body measurement of pre-pubertal buck; rabbits fed different levels of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meals. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. 2010;70(3):515-520.

Abu OA, Rabo JS, Onifade AA, Danny CB. Blood composition and histological changes in the gastro-intestinal tract of rabbits fed untreated rice diets. Proceedings of Annual Conference of Nigeria Society Animal Production. 1998;23:144-147.

Talebi AS, Asri-Rezaei R, Rozeh-Chai, Sahraei R. Comparative studies on hematological values of broiler strains. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2005;4(8):573-579.

Ukanwoko AI, Ironkwe MO, Nnecha C. Growth performance and haematological characteristics of West African dwarf goats fed oil palm leaf meal-cassava peel based diets. Journal of Animal Production Advances. 2013;3(1):1-5.

Graczyk S, Pliszczak-Krol A, Kotonski B, Wilczek J, Chmielak Z. Examination of Haematological and metabolic changes mechanisms of acute stress in Turkeys. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities. 2003;6:1-10.

Ososanya TO, Adewumi MK, Faniyi TO. Influence of water-washed Neem fruits (Azadirachta indica A. juss) on haematology and serum biochemical indices of West African Dwarf ewes. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2014;4(2):225-232.

Abdel Hameed AA, Salid AM, Fadel Elseed AM, Amasab EO. Effect of feeding untreated or urea treated groundnut hull supplemented with different protein sources on blood parameters of Sudan desert lambs. Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research. 2011;40-46.

Chandrawathani P, Chang KW, Nurulainmi R, Waller PJ, Adnan M, Zaini CM, Jamnah O, Khadijah S, Vincent N. Daily feeding of fresh Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) for worm control in sheep. Tropical Biomedical. 2006;23(1):23-30.

Khadijah S, Wahab AR, Chandrawathani P, Wan Zahari M. Pen study of neem pellets (Azadirachta indica) for helminth control in sheep. Proceeding of 41st Annual Scientific Seminar “Natural Products in the Management of Tropical Diseases”. Kuala Lumpur; 2005.

Arunachal PK, Karunanithi K, Narendrababu R. Comparative study on anthelmintic efficacy of neem products and praziplus in sheep. Indian Journal of Small Ruminant. 2002;8:131-132.

Costa CTC, Bevilaqua CML, Maciel MV, Camurca-Vasconcelos ALF, Morais SM. Anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta indica a juss against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. Veterinary Parasitol. 2006;137:306-310.

Niezen JH, Robertson HA, Waghorn GC, Charleston WAG. Production of faecal egg counts and worm burdens of ewe lambs which grazed contrasting forages. Veterinary Parasitol. 1998;80:15-27.

Hordegen P, Hertzberg H, Heilmann J, Langhans W, Maurer V. The anthelmintic efficacy of five plant products against gastro-intestinal trichostrongylids in artificially infected lambs. Veterinary Parasitol. 2003;117:51-60.

Kahiya C, Mukaratirwa S, Thamsborg SM. Effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia karoo diets on Haemonchus contortus infection in goats. Veterinary Parasitol. 2003;115: 265-274.

Pietrosemoli S, Olavez R, Montilla T. Use of neem Azadirachta indica A. juss leaves in gastro-intestinal nematode control in grazing bovines. Revista-de-la-Facultad-de- Agronomia. 1999;16:220-225.