Evaluation of Rice Offal Meal Improved by Rumen Filtrate Fermentation on the Performance and Economics of Producing Table Rabbits

Main Article Content

Albert Terlumun Kpehe
Comfort Dooshima Tuleun
Fabian Gyizaka Kaankuka
Samuel Mtsegh Tiough

Abstract

In an effort to expand the knowledge base on the use of non conventional feedstuff in rabbit nutrition, the nutritional potential and the cost effectiveness of using rice offal fermented with rumen filtrate for 48 hours was investigated using twenty five (25) growing crossbred rabbit bucks weighed between 625.34 g-631.21 g for 10 weeks. The rabbits were divided into five (5) treatment groups of five (5) rabbits each with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a completely randomized design experiment. The control group was fed with a diet containing maize as the main energy source while the remaining four groups were fed with diets in which the maize was replaced with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% Rumen filtrate fermented-rice offal meals respectively. Final weight was similar (P>0.05) in rabbits fed maize-based control diet and those fed diet containing 5% to 20% Rumen Filtrate Fermented Rice Offal Meals (FRO). The experimental diets had significant (P<0.05) effect on the daily feed intake, and daily body weight gain with rabbits on 20% having superior weights of 93.88 g and 20.54 g respectively, and a better feed conversion ratio of 4.57 g. The cost of feed per kg of weight gain was lowered progressively from N446/kg for the control diet to N307/kg for the 20% FRO diet, where the lowest feed cost was observed, with a concomitant improvement in overall production profitability. It was concluded that fermenting rice offal with rumen filtrate had high potential as a possible replacement for maize in rabbit diet at inclusion levels of up to 20%. The use of this agricultural by-product can reduce the cost of rabbit production, increase the availability of cheaper animal protein for the populace, generate higher profit margins for the livestock farmer and reduce environmental pollution. It was therefore recommended that feed manufacturers and rabbit farmers can incorporate up to 20% of bovine rumen filtrate-fermented rice offal meal in the diets of rabbits without compromising performance.

Keywords:
Fermentation, rabbits, rice offal, rumen filtrate, performance and economics of production.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kpehe, A. T., Tuleun, C. D., Kaankuka, F. G., & Tiough, S. M. (2020). Evaluation of Rice Offal Meal Improved by Rumen Filtrate Fermentation on the Performance and Economics of Producing Table Rabbits. Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, 13(2), 9-19. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajaar/2020/v13i230099
Section
Original Research Article

References

Aduku AO, Olukosi JO. Rabbit management in the tropics: Production processing, utilization, marketing, future prospects. Abuja, Nigeria Living Books series, Abuja FCT. 1990;35-68.

Egbo ML, Doma UD, Lacdaks AB. Characteristics of small scale rabbit production and management in Bauchi metropolis. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production, 18-21 March, ABU Zaria. 2001;160-162.

Harris DJ, Cheeke PR, Patton MM. Feed preference studies with rabbit fed fourteen different green. Journal of Applied Rabbit Research. 1983;6:120-124.

Omoikhoje SO, Bamgbose AO, Aruna MB, Asubiaro SM. Growth response of weaned rabbits fed varying levels of unpeeled cassava root meal. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference on Nigerian Society for Animal Production, March 12-15. Nigeria. 2006;290-294.

Ayoola MA, Akinbani, AS. Effects of replacing maize with sundried yam peel meal on growth performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of meat type rabbit. Researcher. 2011;3(4): 70-73.

Okpanachi U. Growth and haematological response of growing rabbits to diets containing graded levels of sun dried bovine rumen content. A project report submitted to the department of animal science, university of Nigeria, Nsukka in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of M.sc in Nutrition and Biochemistry. September. 2008;62.

Kanyinj F, Moonga M. Effect of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese Quails (Cortonix japonica). Journal of Advanced Veterinary Animal Research. 2014;1(3):100-106.

Maikano A. Utilization of rice offal in practical ration of broilers. The Zoologist. 2007;5:1-7.

Oyelu OS, Aduku AA. Evaluation of the nutritive potential of rice bran and wheat offal on growth performance of pre-pubertal rabbits. Bowen Journal of Agriculture. 2002;5:105-110.

Wudiri BB. Production of cereal crops in Nigeria. From research to farmers’ fields. A seminar paper delivered to staff and students at the Plateau State College of Agriculture, Lafia; 1991.

Oyawoye EO, Nelson FS. Optimum level of inclusion of rice offal in the diet of young cockerels. Conference of Nigerian Society of Animal Production, 21st-25th March held at the University of Ilorin, Ilorin Nigeria; 1999.

Oikeh EI, Oriakhi K, Omoregie ES. Proximate analysis and phytochemical screening of Citrus sinensis fruit wastes. Bioscientist. 2013;1:164–170.

Faniyi GF, Ologhobo AD. Effects of replacing brewers’ dried grains with lye-and urea-treated cowpea and sorghum seed hulls in broiler diets. Tropical Animal Production Investigation. 1999;2:69-82.

Tuleun CD, Dashe WA. Effect of dietary levels of toasted mucuna seed meal on the performance and egg quality parameters of laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japanacia). International Journal of Poultry Science. 2010;12:1092-1096.

Tuleun CD, Igba F. Growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed water soaked and cooked velvet bean (Mucuna utilis) meal. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(5):2676-2681.

Ani AO, Ugwuowo LU. Response of weaner rabbits to diets containing graded levels of processed velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens). African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011;10(66):14984-14989.

Adeyemi OA, Eruvbetine D, Oguntona T, Dipeolu MA, Agunbiade JA. Enhancing the nutritional value of whole cassava root meal by rumen filtrate fermentation. Zootecnia Archives. 2007;56:261-264.

Aro SO, Aletor VA, Tewe OO, Fajemisin AN, Usifo B, Falowo AB. Preliminary investigation on the nutrients, anti-nutrients and mineral composition of microbially fermrnted cassava starch residues. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production. Ayetoro, Ogun State. Nigeria. March 16-20. 2008;248-251.

Oboh G. Nutrition enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp. solid media fermentation techniques. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;9:46-49.

Oluremi OIA, Ajih EE, Anthony W. Evaluation of Rumen Filtrate for Fermentation of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Peel in Rabbit Feed. Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2018;6(1):1-5.

DOI: 10.11648/j.avs.20180601.11

Acamovic T. Commercial application of enzymes technology for poultry production. World's Poultry Science Journal. 2001;57: 225-235.

Yakubu B, Adegbola TA, Bogoro S, Yussuf HB. Effect of urea treated and untreated rice offal on the performance of broilers: 1. Growth performances and economy of production. Journal of Sustainable Development in Agricultural Environment. 2007;3:7-13.

Onuh SO. The effect of replacing full-fat soybeans with urea fermented sorghum brewers’ grain in broiler starter diets. Animal Production Research Advances. 2011;7(4):282-285.

NIMET. Nigerian Meteorological Agency, Gboko, Benue State; 2018.

Dairo FAS, Aina A, Omoyemi L, Adegun MK. Ensiled cassava peel and caged layers’ manure mixture as energy source in broiler starter diet. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2011;1:519- 524.

AOAC. Official Method of Analysis, 18th ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists Washington DC; 2005.

Aduku AO. Tropical Feedstuff-Analysis Table. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture. Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria. 1993;1-2.

Pauzenga U. Feeding parent stock. Zootenicia International, December. 1985; 22-24.

Minitab 18 Statistical Software. [Computer software]. State College, PA: Minitab, Inc; 2011.

Ijaiya AT, Fasanya OA, Ayanwale BA. Reproductive performance of breeding rabbit does fed maize and fermented Cassava Peel Meal. Proceedings 27th Annual Conference of Nigeria Society for Animal Production. Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria. 2002;249-252.

Gidenn T, Lebas F. Role of dietary fibre in rabbit nutrition and in digestive troubles prevention. 2nd Rabbit Congress of the Americas, Habana City, Cuba, June 19-22. 2002;13.

Rahman M, Reza A, Saddiki M, Hossain M, Asaduzzaman M, Rahman M. Effect of pellet and mash feeding on the performance of growing rabbits. Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science. 2015;44(2):100-105.

Asuquo BO. Optimum mash level in a mixed mash-forage feeding system for growing rabbits. Journal of Animal. Production. Research. 1993;13:99-104.

Kagya-agyemang JK, Nelson A, Kagya-Agyemang C. Growth performance of weaner rabbits fed on dried pito mash as a replacement for maize. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 2013; 8(4):267-272.

Bello KM, Abdulkarim Z. Performance of weaner rabbits fed dietary levels of cassava root meal. Research Journal of Animal Sciences. 2015;9(1):1-3.

Yashim SM, Gadzama IU, Anene DO. Nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics of weaner rabbits as influenced by differently processed rattle box (crotalaria retusa) leaf meal. Journal of Animal Production Research. 2017;29:210-218.

Shaahu DT, Carew SN, Ayoade JA. Growth performance, meat yield and organ weight of rabbits fed cassava leaf meal. Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Animal Science Association of Nigeria, Bawa, GS, Akpa, GN, Jokthan, GE, Kabir, M and Abdu, SB. (eds.) ABU, Zaria 15-19th September. 2008;449-451.

Agunbiade JA, Adeyemi AO, Fasina OE, Ashorobi BA, Adebanjo MA, Waide OE. Cassava peels and leaves in diets of rabbits: Effects on performance and carcass characteristics. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. 1999;26:29-34.

Gaafar HMA, Ragab AA, El-Reidy KFA. Effect of diet supplemented with pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and black seed (Nigella sativa) oils on performance of rabbits: 1-Growth performance, blood haematology and carcass traits of growing rabbits. Reports and Opinions. 2014; 16(1):52-59.

Shaahu DT, Dzungwe NE, David-Shaahu PN. Growth performance, Economic Value and Carcass characteristics of Rabbits Fed Lablab Seed as a Major Protein Source in Diet. International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology. 2014a;2(6):22-26.

Dairo FAS, Aina OO, Asata AR. Performance evaluation of growing rabbits fed varying levels of Rumen content and blood-rumen content mixture. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. 2005;32(1): 67-72.