Preparation, Characterization and Biological Efficacy of Eucalyptus Oil Nanoemulsion against the Stored Grain Insects

Main Article Content

Tahany G. M. Mohammed
M. E. H. Nasr


Nanotechnology has enormous potential for developing alternative pest control strategies and reducing the risk of insecticide molecules. The present study aimed to develop a stable nanoemulsion (NE) of eucalyptus oil (EO) by the spontaneous emulsification method and evaluate its insecticidal and repellent effect against Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Rhizopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium-castaneum (Herbst.). The prepared nanoemulsion formulation having a small particle size 8.57 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) 0.28. The study of the stability and physicochemical properties showed that the prepared formulation had good physical stability without any change in the macroscopic parameters. In addition, results showed that theinsecticidal activity of the prepared NE was higher than the original EO against the three tested insect speciesand the mortality increased with increasing concentrations and extending of exposure time. The contact toxicity of NE film revealed that, adults of R. dominica was more susceptible to all treatments followed by S. oryzae adults, while adults of T. castaneum was the least susceptible one, however, adults of S. oryzae was more susceptible followed by T. castaneum adults while, adults of                    R. dominica was the least susceptible one according to the fumigant toxicity and repellency. Our results suggested that the prepared formulation may be used in an integrated pest managementprogramfor controlling stored grain insects.

Eucalyptus oil, formulation, nanoemulsion, Sitophilus oryzae, Rhizopertha dominica, Tribolium castaneum

Article Details

How to Cite
Mohammed, T. G. M., & Nasr, M. E. H. (2020). Preparation, Characterization and Biological Efficacy of Eucalyptus Oil Nanoemulsion against the Stored Grain Insects. Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, 13(2), 41-51.
Original Research Article


Werdin González JO, et al. Essential oils nanoformulations for stored-product pest control – Characterization and biological properties. Chemosphere. 2014;100:130-138.

Spochacz M, et al. Plant-Derived substances used against beetles–pests of stored crops and food–and their mode of action: A review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2018; 17(5):1339-1366.

Yaseen M, et al. Insect pest infestation during storage of cereal grains, pulses and oilseeds, in health and safety aspects of food processing technologies. A. Malik, Z. Erginkaya, H. Erten, Editors. Springer International Publishing: Cham. 2019;209-234.

Rajabpour A, Abdali Mashahdi AR, Ghorbani MR. Chemical compositions of leaf extracts from Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae) and their bioactivities against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 2019;22(1):333-337.

Isman MB. Botanical insecticides, deterrents and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annu Rev Entomol. 2006;51:45-66.

Taban A, Saharkhiz MJ, Hooshmandi M. Insecticidal and repellent activity of three Satureja species against adult red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Acta Ecologica Sinica. 2017;37(3):201-206.

Cao JQ, et al. Pinene-rich essential oils from Haplophyllum dauricum (L.) G. Don display anti-insect activity on two stored-product insects. International Biodeteriora-tion & Biodegradation. 2019;140:1-8.

Wang Y, et al. Comparative evaluation of the chemical composition and bioactivities of essential oils from four spice plants (Lauraceae) against stored-product insects. Industrial Crops and Products. 2019;140: 111640.

Arena JS, et al. Essential oils from Dysphania ambrosioides and Tagetes minuta enhance the toxicity of a conventional insecticide against Alphitobius diaperinus. Industrial Crops and Products. 2018;122:190-194.

Batish DR, et al. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural pesticide. Forest Ecology and Management. 2008;256(12):2166-2174.

Lee BH, et al. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from the Myrtaceae family and 1,8-cineole against 3 major stored-grain insects. Journal of Stored Products Research. 2004;40(5):553-564.

Mossi AJ, et al. Insecticidal and repellency activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus sp. against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2011; 91(2):273-277.

Adak T, et al. Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil: An alternative to synthetic pesticides against two major storage insects (Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)) of rice. Industrial Crops and Products. 2020;143:111849.

Moretti N. The truth is out there. Pollution Engineering. 2002;34(4):1.

Werdin González J, et al. Novel nano insecticides based on essential oils to control the German cockroach. Journal of Pest Science; 2014.

Oliveira J, et al. Application of nanotechnology for the encapsulation of botanical insecticides for sustainable agriculture: Prospects and promises. Biotechnology Advances. 2014;32:1550-1561.

Zeng L, et al. Formulation and evaluation of norcanthridin nanoemulsions against the Plutella xylostella (Lepidotera: Plutellidae). BMC Biotechnology. 2019;19.

Guttoff M, Saberi AH, McClements D. Formation of vitamin D nanoemulsion-based delivery systems by spontaneous emulsification: Factors affecting particle size and stability. Food Chemistry. 2015; 171:117–122.

Ghosh V, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. Formulation and characterization of plant essential oil based nanoemulsion: Evaluation of its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2013;25:S321-S323.

CIPAC CI. Collaborative international pesticides analytical council.
[Acesso em. 2016]

ASTM. Standard test method for refractive index and refractive dispersion of hydrocarbon liquids. American Society of Testing and Materials. 2016;D1218-12.

ASTM, Standard test methods for surface and interfacial tension of solutions of paints, solvents, solutions of surface-active agents and related materials. American Society for Testing and Materials. 2014;D 1331.

ASTM. Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method. ASTM. 2017; D1298.

ASTM. Standard Test Methods for Rheological Properties of Non-Newtonian Materials by Rotational Viscometer American Society of Testing and Materials. 2018;D2196

Abbott WS. A method for computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J. Econ. Entomo. 1925;18:265-67.

Finney DF. Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press, London. 1971;256.

Tadros T, et al. Formation and stability of nano-emulsions. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 2004;108-109:303-318.

McClements DJ, Decker EA, Weiss J. Emulsion-based delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive components. J Food Sci. 2007;72(8):R109-24.

Acosta E. Bioavailability of nanoparticles in nutrient and nutraceutical delivery. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science. 2009;14(1):3-15.

Wang Z, et al. Preparation and characterization of micro/nano-emulsions containing functional food components. Japan Journal of Food Engineering. 2015; 16(4):263-276.

Burakova Y, Shi J, Schlup JR. Impact of oil composition on formation and stability of emulsions produced by spontaneous emulsification. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology. 2017;38(12): 1749-1754.

Benelli G. Mode of action of nanoparticles against insects. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018;25(13): 12329-12341.

Seibert JB, et al. Seasonality study of essential oil from leaves of Cymbopogon densiflorus and nanoemulsion development with antioxidant activity. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 2019;34(1):5-14.

Giardino L, et al. Surface tension comparison of four common root canal irrigants and two new irrigants containing antibiotic. J Endod. 2006; 32(11):1091-3.

Pavoni L, et al. Chapter 5 - Green nanoemulsion interventions for biopesticide formulations, in nano-biopesticides today and future perspectives, O. Koul, Editor. Academic Press. 2019;133-160.

Wang L, et al. Oil-in-water nanoemulsions for pesticide formulations. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2007; 314(1):230-235.

Stamopoulos DC. Bioactivity of five monoterpenoid vapours to Tribolium confusum (du Val) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research. 2007;43(4):571-577.

Sugumar S, et al. Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Bull Entomol Res. 2014;104(3):393- 402.

Hashem AS, et al. Pimpinella anisum essential oil nanoemulsions against Tribolium castaneum insecticidal activity and mode of action. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018;25(19):18802-18812.

Mossa AH, et al. Formulation and characterization of garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil nanoemulsion and its acaricidal activity on eriophyid olive mites (Acari: Eriophyidae). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018;25(11):10526-10537.