Influence of Kraal Manure, Chicken Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer on Growth, Yield and Post-harvest Quality of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in a Sub-tropical Environment

Main Article Content

Thulani R. Kunene
Michael T. Masarirambi
Paul K. Wahome
Tajudeen O. Oseni


The excessive unjustified use of some kinds of fertilizers has seen some farmers realizing poor quality fruit that does not appeal to the final consumer, thus negatively affecting the effort of alleviating poverty in the Kingdom of Eswatini. This experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Department Lath House, Faculty of Agriculture, Luyengo Campus of the University of Eswatini to determine the growth, yield and shelf-life of green pepper when fertilized with kraal manure, poultry manure and inorganic fertilizer. The experiment was conducted to find the optimum levels of fertilizers that promotes the growth of pepper and to find the effects of different fertilizers on yield and quality of pepper. The treatments included kraal manure applied at 60 t/ha, [NPK (2:3:2) 37] at 370 kg/ha, chicken manure at 40 t per hectare and the control with no amendment. The results showed that growing pepper using the four treatments significantly affected its growth rate, leaf number, fruit number and its (fruit) shelf life. Pepper grown using inorganic fertilizer had the highest leaf number followed in decreasing order by chicken manure, kraal manure and lastly peppers which did not receive any amendment.  There were no significant difference in the growth rate of pepper in the inorganic fertilizer and chicken manure treatments. Similarly, there was no significant difference of pepper grown with chicken manure and chemical fertilizer in the number of days it took the harvested pepper to reach 100% decay stored at room temperature for 21 days. Yet pepper grown with kraal manure was significantly different from the two as it showed 20% decay rate in the same number of days. Although the control had the least decay, the yield was the lowest thus it is not recommended. Kraal manure at 60 t/ha is recommended in the production of pepper with a longer shelf life.

Kraal manure, chicken manure, inorganic fertilizer, Capsicum annuum L., pepper.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kunene, T., Masarirambi, M., Wahome, P., & Oseni, T. (2019). Influence of Kraal Manure, Chicken Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer on Growth, Yield and Post-harvest Quality of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in a Sub-tropical Environment. Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, 11(1), 1-11.
Original Research Article


Norman JC. Tropical vegetable production. Auther H. Stockwell LTD, Elms CourtIfrracombe, Devon, U.K; 1992.

Edje OT, Ossom EM. Crop science handbook. Blue Moon Publishers, Manzini, Swaziland; 2009.

Ogunlela VB, Masarirambi MT, Makuza SM. Effects of cattle manure application on pod yield and yield indices of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) in semi-arid and subtropical environment. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 2005;3:5-15.

Masarirambi MT, Dlamini P, Wahome PK, Oseni TO. Effects of chicken manure on growth, yield and quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) ‘Tiana’ under a lath house in a semi-arid sub-tropical environment. American-Euasian Journal Agriculture and Environment. 2012;12(3): 399-406.

Murdoch G. Soils and land capability in Swaziland ministry of agriculture, Mbabane, Swaziland; 1970.

Brady N, Weil R. Nature and properties of soils. 13th edition, Prentice Hall, New York. USA; 2007.

Nissen O. MSTAT-Ca micro computer programme design, management and analysis of agronomic research projects. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA; 1989.

Gomez AA, Gomez KA. Statistical procedures for agricultural research. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, USA; 1994.

Jacobs RD, Sloan D, Jacob J. Cage layer manure: An important resource for land use; 2003.


Van Averbeke A, Yoganathan S. Using kraal manure as a fertilizer. Department of Agriculture. Pretoria. South Africa; 2003.

Grandy AS, Porter, Enrich NS. Organic management and crop rotation effects on the recovery of organic matter and aggregation in potato cropping systems. Soil Science Society Journal 2002;66: 1311-1319.

Kahu JC, Umeh CC, Achadu, AE. Effetcs of different types of organic fertilizers on growth performance of Amaranthus caudatus (Samaru Local Variety) and Amaranthus cruentus (NH84/452). Asian Journal Advances in Agricultural Research. 2019;9(2):1-12.

Ferguson J, Ziegler M. Guidelines for purchase and application of poultry manure for organic crop production; 2004.