Subclinical Mastitis Survey on Milk Composition in Dairy Sheep in Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Main Article Content

Mahmood Ahmad Hussein


Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland, characterized by the changes in the physical characteristics of the udder or milk. A cross sectional study was carried out in June, 2017 to December, 2018 to estimate the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) on milk composition in dairy sheeps in Kafri city of Kurdistan region of Iraq. Milk samples were gathered from residences of 295 sheeps with subclinical mastitis (California mastitis test (CMT) positive and somatic cell counts (SCC) >600,000 cells/ml in individual quarter foremilk), as well as from 50 healthy controls. Contrasted to the levels watched in milk from healthy quarters, milk from quarters with subclinical mastitis exhibited raised high chloride (>0.12 in contrast with <0.12 g/dl), pH (5.65 in comparison to 5.57), sodium (86.87 vs 47.81 mg/dl), albumin (4.52 in contrast with 1.75 g/dl), immunoglobulins (24.66% in comparison to 5.73%) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (1344.14 vs 449.84 IU/L). In compare, reduced values were discovered for potassium (147.47 in comparison to 161.34 mg/dl), inorganic phosphorous (19.42 in comparison to 26.48 mg/dl), calcium (86.35 vs 121.12 mg/dl), β-lactoglobulin (30.22% in comparison to 52.18%) and α- lactalbumin (19.15% vs 24.52%). In this study, no changes were seen in blood serum LDH activity. Moreover, an increase in positive response to CMT was found to be accompanied by an almost proportionate increase in immunoglobulin values to 44.32% and reduce of α-lactalbumin levels in milk serum (p<0.01). These alterations in LDH activity, pH, mineral concentrations and protein fractions in milk of quarters display the presence of tissue injury provoked by SCM. Therefore, these parameters can be used in the diagnosis of mastitis. The current study revealed that changes of the foremilk chemical composition are connected to the subclinical mastitis; and that mastitis progression of quarters (CMT scores) influenced protein fractions in milk.

Composition, CMT, Kafri, Kurdistan, Iraq, milk, subclinical mastitis.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hussein, M. A. (2019). Subclinical Mastitis Survey on Milk Composition in Dairy Sheep in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, 11(4), 1-7.
Original Research Article


Anderson KL, Smith AR, Shanks RD, Whitmore HL, Davis LE, Gustafsson BK. Endotoxin-induced bovine mastitis: immunoglobulins, phagocytosis, and effect of flunixin meglumine. Am. J. Vet. Res. 1986;47:2405-2410.

Leitner G, Chaffer M, Shamay A, Shapiro F, Merin U, Ezra E, Saran A, Silanikove N. Changes in milk composition as affected by subclinical mastitis in sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 2004a;87:46-52.

Mishra SK, Panda B, Mohapatra SC, Ahuja SD. Genotype-protein interaction for egg production traits in Japanese quail. India J. Poult. Sci. 1993;29(1):18-22.

Nazifi S, Haghkhah M, Asadi Z, Ansari-Lari M, Tabandeh MR, Esmailnezhad Z, Aghamiri M. Evaluation of sialic acid and acute phase proteins (Haptoglobin and serum Amyloid A) in clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 2011;31:55-59.

Moroni P, Vellere F, Antonini M, Pisoni G, Ruffo G, Carli S. Antibiotic

susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from goat's milk. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 2004;23:637-640.

Leslie KE, Dingwell RT. Mastitis control: Where are we and where are we

going? In: Andrews AH (Ed.), the health of dairy cattle. (1st Edn.), Malden, BlackwellSeries. 2000;370-381.

Neelesh S, Gyu JR, Yeong HH, Tae YK, Hak Kyo Lee HK, Tai-Young H, Dong KJ, Bovine mastitis: An Asian perspective. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2012;7:454-476.

Shamay A, Mabjeesh SJ, Silanikove N. Casein-derived phosphopeptides disrupt tight junction integrity and precipitously dry up milk secretion in goats. Life Sci. 2002;70:2707–2719.

Schaar J, Funke H. Effect of subclinical mastitis on milk plasminogen and plasmin compared with that on sodium, antitrypsin and N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase. J. Dairy Res. 1986;53:515–528.

Siddiquee NU, Tripura TK, Islam MT, Bhuiyan SA, Rahman AKMA, Bhuiyan AKFH. Prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis in high yielding crossbred cows using draminski mastitis detector. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2013;11 (1):37-41.

Merkhan K, Alkassa J. Study on milk composition of black and Meriz goats raised under farm condition. Journal of University of Duhok. 2012;15(1):58-63.

FAOSTAT; 2008.

Fthenakis GC, El-Masannat ET, Booth JM, Jones JET. Somatic cell count of ewes’ milk. Br. Vet. J. 1991;147:575–581.

Auldist MJ, Coats S, Sutherland JB, Mayes JJ, McDowell HG. Effects of somatic cell count and stage of lactation on raw milk composition and the yield and quality of cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Res. 1996;63: 269–280.

Batavani RA, Mortaz E, Falahian K, Dawoodi MA. Study on frequency, etiology and some enzymatic activities of subclinical ovine mastitis in Urmia, Iran. Small Ruminant Res. 2003;50:45-50.

Fthenakis GC. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in ewes of Southern Iraq. Small Rumin. Res. 1994;13:293–300.

Kotula AW, Thomson JE, Kinner JA. Weight increase during chilling of broilers as influenced by methods of opening the abdominal cavity during evisceration. Poult. Sci. 1996;39:26-27.

Fantuz F, Plidori F, Cheli F, Baldi A. Plasminogen activation system in goat milk and its relation with composition and coagulation properties. J. Dairy Sci. 2001; 84:1786–1790.

White EC, Hickley LS. Prevalence of mastitis pathogens in goat milk. Small Rum. Res. 1991;33:117-121.

Singh PK, Khatta VK, Thakur RS, Dey S, Sangwan ML. Effects of phytase supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens fed maize and wheat baseddiets with different levels of non-phytate phosphorus. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 2003;16(1):1642-1649.

Pandey NK, Shyamsunder G. Carcass characteristics, meat yield and physicochemical properties of meat from white leghorn cockerels. Indian J. Poult. Sci. 1990;25(4):249-252.

Ernstrom CA, Wong NP. Milk clotting enzymes and cheese chemistry. Pages 662—771 in Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry. H. B. Webb A, Johnson H, Alford JA, ed. Avi Publ. Co., Inc., Westport, CT; 1974.

El-Dengawy RA, Nassar AM. Investigation on the nutritive value and

microbiological quality of wild quail carcasses.Nahrung/Food45.No.1. 2001; 50-54.

Leitner G, Merin U, Silanikove N. Changes in milk composition as affected by subclinical mastitis in goats. J. Dairy Sci. 2004b;87:1719-1726.

SPSS. (Statistical Procedure for Social Sciences). SPSS 11.5 for windows; 1998.

Ndegwa EN, Mulei CM, Munyua SJ. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in Kenya. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 2000;71(1):25-27.

Ndegwa EN, Mulei CM, Munyua SJM. Risk factors associated with

subclinical subacute mastitis in Kenyan dairy goats. Israel J. Vet. Med. 2001;56:4.

Leitner G, Chaffer M, Caraso Y, Ezra E, Kababea D, Winkler M, Saran A. Udder infection and milk somatic cell count, NAGase activity and milk composition-fat, protein and lactose-in Israeli Assaf and Awassi sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 2003a; 49:157–164.