Main Article Content
Beef carcass classification represents an assurance to the consumer that the meat conforms to established set of official standards according to consumer demands and expectations. Most beef carcass grading systems combine both the grades for quality (carcass maturity, fatness, conformation, carcass defects) and quantity (expected yield). However, there is scarcity of documented information on the existing beef classification systems among some African countries. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the heterogeneity of the existing beef grading systems in selected African countries. The criteria used in beef carcass classification systems of these African countries were examined in the present study, and compared with the European Union red meat classification system. The results of this review indicated lack of uniformity in beef carcass classification systems among the selected African countries. In addition, the results show that at the moment some African countries have not adopted an objective system of beef carcass grading. Therefore, the existing red meat classification system using non-objective visual assessment of beef carcasses could be biased. The use of objective quality indices/attributes is recommended as a form of an improvement that will be aligned with consumer expectations.
FAO. Livestock sub-sector review and range survey. AG:TCP/SWA/2353. Main Report, Rome, Italy.1994;1:39-46.
Warris P. Meat science: An Introductory text. Second Edit. CABI, UK. 2010;106-130.
Wikipedia. Beef carcass classification; 2017.
Available:https/llen.wikipedia.org/wiki-/ Beef carcass classification. 17/7/201
McMillin KW, Huang NY, Ho CP, Smith BS. Quality and shelf life of meat in case-ready modified atmosphere packaging. Quality Attributes of muscle foods. 1999; 73-93. Available:https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4615-4731_0_6 20/8/2017
Ostojić-Andreć D, Aleksić A, Hristov S, Novaković Z, Petrović MM, Niksić D Stansić N. Serbia In the Implementation of EUROP Standard for beef carcass classification: Legislation, parameters and evaluation criteria (Part A) Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry. 2012;28(1):47–58.
DG Sanco 7245. Final audit report to evaluate the operation of controls over the production of fresh meat bovine meat destined for export to the European Union as well as certification procedures. European Commission Health and Consumer Directorate General, Ares. 2014;1890236:14-15.
OIE. PVS Evaluation Follow –Up Report on Veterinary Services of Swaziland; 2015. Available:www.oie.int/Fileadmin/Home/end/Supportto_OIE_Memberrs/pdf/20150810_PVSEvaluation_Final Report_Swaziland.pdf
BMC. Price structure by grade; 2016. Available:www.bmc.bw/content/id/24/Price structure by grade 10/6/2017
Hill DH. Cattle and buffalo meat production in the tropics. Intermediate tropical agriculture series, Longman Scientific & Technical, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. 1988;197-203.
CODEX Alimentarius. Meat and meat products including soups and broths, Joint FAO/WHO codex Alimentarius Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 1993;10.
BLMI. Grading carcasses regulations. Republic of Botswana; 2007.
Available:www.bmc.bw/newdetails/id/43/ Revised cattle Slaughter cattle slaughter Prices-Maun 10/6/2017.
Fermet-Quinet E, Punderson J, Ishibashi T, Mtei B. OIE-PVS evaluation report on the veterinary services of Botswana, World Organisation for Animal Health, Paris, France. 2010;55-59.
Available:www.rr-africa.oie.int/docspdf/ en/PVS/ Botswana-2010.pdf 3/9/2017
Strydom PJ, Museler DL. The Performance of the Namibian Beef Industry; 1998.
Available:www.nbri.na/sites/default/files/agricola1998/1999., Meat Board Namibia: 119-125 13/5/2017
Namibia Meat Board. Meatco tests computer grading system for carcasses, Namibia Economist; 2005.
Available:Www.alafrica.com/stories/ 200508120785.html/ 13/5/2017
Strydom PE, Luhl J, Kahl C, Hoffman LC. Comparison of shear force tenderness, drip and cooking loss, and ultimate muscle Ph of the loin muscle among grass-fed steers of four major beef crosses slaughtered in Namibia. South African Journal of Animal Science. 2016;46:348-359.
Strydom PE. Quality related principles of the South African beef classification system in relation to grading and classification systems of the world. South African Journal of Animal Science. 2011; 41(3):177-193.
Strydom P, Schutz W. Namibia Livestock Sector Strategy: Final Report; 2011. Available:www.the-eis.com/data/ literature/namibia livestock producer sector strategy.pdf 13/5/2017
Soji Z, Muchenje V. Effects of genotype and age on some carcass and meat quality traits of beef carcasses subjected to the South African classification system. Meat Science 2016;117: 205-211.
?search//q=effect of genotype and age on some 13/8/2017
Webb EC. Description of carcass classification goals and the current situation in South Africa, South African Journal of Animal Science. 2015;45(3). Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/SAJAS.V45I3.1, On-line version
Print version ISSN: 0375-1589 11.02.2017.
Schönfeldt HC, Pretorius B. Relevance of the South African Carcass classification system, 12th Meat Symposium, Pretoria, South Africa, Journal of Animal Science. 2015;45(3):227-354. Available:www.cabi.org/ahpc/FulltextPDF/2015/20153387145.pdf 13/8/2017
Vermeulen H, Schönfeldt HC, Pretorius B. A consumer perspective of the South African red meat classification system, South African Journal of Animal Science. 2015;45(3):339-354.
Available:www.cabi.org/ahpc/full textPDF/2015/20153387156.pdf 13/8/2017
Fermet-Quinet E, Leon E, Punderson J, Stratton J, Bastiaenssen P. OIE PVS evaluation report of the veterinary services of the Republic of South Africa, World Organisation for Animal Health, Paris, France. 2012;(3-4):65-68.
/ OIEPVSE valutation report of the veterinary Services of the Republic of South Africa 3/9/2017.
Chingala G, Raffrenato E, Dzama K, Hoffman LC, Mapiye C. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern Africa. South African Journal of Animal Science. 2017;47(4):408-423.
DAFF. Beef carcass classification guidance version 4.0; 2011.
FAO. Beef Pricing Policy in Zimbabwe; 2017.
Zimbabwe livestock market update, (2016). The beef carcass classification and grading system; 2016.
WTO. The International Markets for meat 1995/1996. International Bovine Meat Agreement, Second Annual Report, World Trade Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland; 1996.
EEC. Community scale for the classification of carcass of adult bovine animals. R (EEC) No.1026/91. Office for official publications of European Communities, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg; 1991.
Ellies-Oury MP, Dumont R, Perrier G, Roux M, Micol D, Picard B. Effects of age and carcass weight on quality traits of M. rectus abdominis from Charolais heifers. The Animal Consortium. 2016;11(4):720-727.
Sen AR, Muthukumar M, Naveena BM, Ramanna DBV. Effects of colour on characteristics of buffalo meat during blooming, retail display and using vitamin C during refrigeration storage. Journal of Food Science Technology. 2014;51(11):3515-3519.
AMSA. AMSA Meat colour Guidelines. American Meat Science Association. 2012; 6-8.
Rural Payments Agency. Beef classification by Automated grading technique (Video imaging Analysis-VIA); 2014. Available:https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads
Glasbey CA, Navajas E, Mclean KA, Fisher AV, Lambe NR, Bunger L, Simm G. Estimation of muscle volume by automated image analysis of spiral computed tomography scans in sheep. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science. 2004;37:37-38.
Young MJ, Simm G, Glasbey CA. Computerised tomography for carcass analysis. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science. 2001;250-254.
Wnek K, Golebiewski M, Przysucha T, Balcerak M. Accuracy of visual assessment of beef carcasses EUROP perfomed by the national assessors and assessor from the abattoir, Warsaw University of life Sciences, SGGW, Animal Science. 2016;55(1):127-134.
Available:www.carcass+classification+in+developing + countries 13/8/2017
DARD. The beef carcass classification system. Agricultural Product Standards Act, 1990 (Act No.119 of 1990).London, United Kingdom; 2019.