Main Article Content
The need for rapid test in evaluation of feedstuffs in poultry nutrition cannot be overemphasized. Such test must however be able to replace exactly the response in the animal concern. This study was conducted to determine the suitability of In vitro technique in predicting the In vivo response of poultry to enzyme supplemented feedstuffs. Rice husk was used in a Completely Randomized Design with individual and cocktail of enzymes for both In vitro and In vivo trials. Three exogenous enzymes namely a xylanase, a multipurpose and a phytase were used individually, pairwise and altogether with the feedstuff to constitute the treatments namely T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, and T8. Each treatment was replicated thrice for both In vitro and In vivo trials. The In vitro trial was done to simulate the chicken digestive system while the In vivo trial was done using the intubation method. Parameters measured for both trials were digestibility values for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and fiber fractions. All data collected were statistically analyzed using Analysis of Variance procedure and treatment means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. Correlation analysis was carried out to compare the results of both trials. Results show that enzymes individually and as cocktails significantly improved the digestibility of parameters for both In vitro and In vivo trials. Cocktails of enzymes were significantly better than the individual enzymes for dry matter and crude fiber digestibility for both In vitro and In vivo trials. Correlation analysis shows positive correlation (r=0.99, r=0.96, r=0.94, r= 0.86, r=0.78) between In vitro and In vivo trials in most of digestibility values for the rice husk. It was concluded that In vitro trial can be used as both criterion and replacement for In vivo trial when determining the efficacy of exogenous enzymes in poultry nutrition.
Kitessa S, Flinn PC, Irish GG. Comparison of Methods Used to Predict the In vivo Digestibility of Feeds in Ruminants, Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 1999; 50: 825-841.
Adeniji AA, Jimoh A. Effects of Replacing Maize with Enzyme-supplemented Bovine Rumen Content in the Diets of Pullet Chicks. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2007; 6 ; 814-817.
Jimoh A. Matrix Effects of Enzymes and Cocktails on In Vitro Digestibility of Rice Husk. 21st Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, (Eds.) Ajayi FO, Akinola LAF, Agaviezor BO, George OS. Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 2016;1: 40-45.
Oyenuga VA, Nigeria Feed and Feedstuffs. Ibadan University Press 3rd Edition. 1968
Fasuyi AO, Olumuyiwa TA. Evaluating Nutritional Potential of Bio-fermented Rice Husk in Broilers Diets. American Journal of Food Technology. 2013; 7:726-735.
Boisen S, Fernadez JA. Prediction of the Total Tract Digestibility of Energy in Feedstuffs and Pig Diets by In vitro Analyses. Animal Feed Science Technology, 1997; 68:277-286.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th edition. AOAC, Washington DC. 2005; 1:94-115.
Van Soest PJ. Development of a Comprehensive System of Feed Analysis and its Application to Forages. Journal of Animal Science, 1967; 26: 119-128.
Sibald IR. The True Metabolisable Energy Values of Several Feeding Stuffs Measured with Roosters, Laying Hens, Turkeys and Broiler Hens. Poultry Science. 1976; 55:1459¬1463.
Statistical Analysis System SAS. Statistical Analysis System SAS User’s Guide, Version 8, SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. 2002
Duncan DB. Multiple Range and Multiple F- tests, Biometrics. 1955; 11: 1-42.
Belewu MA. Biodegradation of Sorghum Stover by Fungi and the Feeding of Resulting Stovers to Rat. Proceedings of 3rd Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, Ikeja Lagos. 1998; 17-19.
Warren BE, Farrell DJ. The Nutritive Value of Full-fat and Defatted Australian Rice Bran. I. Chemical Composition. Animal Feed Science Technology. 1960; 27: 219-228.
Shqueir AA, Brown DL, Klasing KC. Canavanine Content and Toxicity of Sesbania Leaf Meal for Growing Chicks. Animal Feed Science Technology. 1989; 25: 137- 147.
Adeniji AA. Effects of Dietary Grit Inclusion on the Utilization of Rice Husk by Pullet Chicks, Tropical and Subtropical Agro-ecosystems. 2010; (12): 175 –180.
Alabi OO, Atteh JO, Ogunniyi PT. Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Rice Husk Supplemented With Commercial Enzymes on Performance, Nutrient Retention and Gastro-Intestinal Tract Characteristics of Arbor Acres Broilers, American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2014; 4:575-583.
Aderolu AZ, Iyayi EA, Abiodun AO. Changes in Nutritional Value of Rice Husk during Trichoderma viride Degradation, Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 2007; 13: 583-589.
Kies AK, Hemert Van KHF, Sauer WC. Effect of Phytase on Protein and Amino Acid Digestibility and Energy Utilization. World's Poultry Science Journal. 2001; 57: 109-126.
Cardot J, Beyssac E, Alric M. In vitro- In vivo Correlation; Importance of Dissolution in IVIVC, Dissolution Technologies. 2007; 14:15-19.
Regmi PR, Ferguson NS, Zijlstra RT. In vitro Digestibility Techniques to Predict Apparent Total Tract Energy Digestibility of Wheat in Grower Pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 2009; 87:3620–3629.
McDonald P, Edwards RA, Greenhalgh JFD, Morgan CA, Sinclair LA, Wilkinson RG,: Animal Nutrition, Seventh edition. Pearson Education limited, Edinburgh Gate Harlow, Essex CM 20 2JE.United Kingdom, 2010
Bedford MR, Schulze H. Exogenous Enzymes for Pigs and Poultry. Nutrition Research Review. 1998; 11:91-114.
Nahm KH, Carlson CW, Effects of Cellulase from Trichoderma viride on Nutrient Utilization by Broilers. Poultry Science. 1985; 64:1536-1540.
Atteh JO. The Use of Enzyme to Improve the Nutritive Value of Wheat Milling By-Products (Wheat Bran) in Poultry Feeds. Seminar on “Starting The New Millennium With an Array of Tailor-Made Biotechnical Improved Flour Milling and Baking Industry”, Lagos Nigeria. 2000.
Jorgensen HZ, XinQuan KE, Krudse BO, Zhao XQ. The Influence of Dietary Fibre Source and Level on Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract Digestibility and Energy Metabolism in Broiler Chickens. British Journal of Nutrition. 1996; 75:379- 395.