Straw, Seed Yield and Quality of Three Linum usitatissimum L. Cultivars in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate and Plant Density

Main Article Content

El-Saeed M. M. El- Gedwy
Gaber Y. M. Hammam
Salah A. H. Allam
Saber H. A. Mostafa
Khaled S. S. El- Shimy

Abstract

Methodology: Two field experiments were conducted on the Experimental Farm at El-Gemmeiza Research Station, Gharbia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during two successive winter seasons of 2018-19 and 2019-20.

Aims: To investigate the effect of three nitrogen fertilizer rates, i.e. 30, 50 and 70 kg N feddan-1 [one feddan (fed) = 4200 m2] and three plant densities, i.e. 1500, 2000 and 2500 seeds m-2 on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) yield and its quality of three cultivars of flax, i.e. Sakha 3, Giza 11 and Giza 12.

Results: Results in combined analysis of the two seasons showed that Sakha 3 cultivar significantly produced the maximum total plant height, technical stem length, upper branching zone length, No. of seeds capsule-1, total fiber percentage, fiber yield plant-1, fiber yield fed-1, fiber length and fiber fineness. Meanwhile, the highest No. of basal branches plant-1, straw yield plant-1, straw yield fed-1 and seed oil content were recorded with Giza 12 cultivar. While, Giza 11 cultivar gave the maximum stem diameter, No. of upper branches plant-1, No. of capsules plant-1, No. of seeds plant-1, seed index, seed yield plant-1, seed yield fed-1, harvest index, oil yield plant-1 and oil yield fed-1. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer rates from 30 up to 70 kg N fed-1 caused significant increases in almost straw, fiber, seed and oil yields and its related traits of flax, on the other hand, fiber fineness which significantly decreased with increasing nitrogen rates. Flax plants growing at 1500 seeds m-2 markedly gave the greatest No. of basal branches plant-1, stem diameter, straw yield plant-1, upper branching zone length, No. of upper branches plant-1, No. of capsules plant-1, No. of seeds plant-1, seed yield plant-1, harvest index, oil yield plant-1 and fiber yield plant-1. Meanwhile, the maximum total plant height, technical stem length, straw yield fed-1, seed yield fed-1, oil yield fed-1, total fiber percentage, fiber yield fed-1, fiber length and fiber fineness were obtained from flax planting at 2500 seeds m-2. The maximum fiber yield were recorded from the interactions among treatments Sakha 3 X 70 kg N fed-1, Sakha 3 X 2500 seeds m-2, 70 kg N fed-1 X 2500 seeds m-2 and Sakha 3 X 70 kg N fed-1 X 2500 seeds m-2. Meanwhile, the maximum seed and oil yields fed-1 were recorded from the interactions between treatments Giza 11 X 70 kg N fed-1, Giza 11 X 2500 seeds m-2, 70 kg N fed-1 X 2500 seeds m-2 and Giza 11 X 70 kg N fed-1 X 2500 seeds m-2.

Generally, it could be concluded that Sakha 3 cultivar under soil fertilized by 70 kg N fed-1 with plant density of 2500 seeds m-2 to maximizing fiber yield fed-1, while Giza 11 cultivar with the same rates of nitrogen and plant density to maximizing seed and oil yields fed-1.

Keywords:
Flax cultivars, nitrogen fertilizer, plant density, straw, seed, oil and fiber yield.

Article Details

How to Cite
Gedwy, E.-S. M. M. E.-, Hammam, G. Y. M., Allam, S. A. H., Mostafa, S. H. A., & Shimy, K. S. S. E.-. (2020). Straw, Seed Yield and Quality of Three Linum usitatissimum L. Cultivars in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate and Plant Density. Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, 14(4), 8-29. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajaar/2020/v14i430137
Section
Original Research Article

References

Leilah AA, Ghonema MH, Kineber ME, Talha IH. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers levels on yields and technological characters of three flax cultivars under saline soil conditions. J. Plant Production, Mansoura Univ. 2018;9 (8):689-693.

Sarkees NA, Mahmood BJ. Effect of plant density in yield and quality of two flax cultivars (Linum usitatissimum L.). J. Tikrit Univ. Agri. Sci. 2018;18(3):13-20.

Abdel-Kader EM, Mousa AM. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on some flax varieties under two different location conditions. J. Plant Production, Mansoura Univ. 2019;10 (1):37-44.

Osmari MP, Velho JP, Waechter MC, Rutz R, Marchi FE, Almeida PS, Júnio RC, Santos GT. Nitrogen fertilization changes the productivity and chemical composition of Brown and Golden flax grains. Ciências Agrárias, Londrina. 2019;40(6):3565-3576.

Tavarini S, Castagna A, Conte G, Foschi L, Sanmartin C, Incrocci L, Ranieri A, Serra A, Angelini LG. Evaluation of chemical composition of two linseed varieties as sources of health-beneficial substances. Molecules. 2019;24(1-15).

El-Shimy KS, Hammam GY, Allam SA, Mostafa SH, El-Gedwy EM. Flax yield potential as affected by irrigation intervals and nitrogen fertilizer rates. Annals of Agric. Sci. Moshtohor. 2017;55(4):817-824.

Ibrahim MH, Kineber ME, Ragab AY, Galoo WF. Impact of nitrogen fertilizer level and times of foliar spraying with potassium on yield and its components of some flax genotypes. J. Agric. Res. Kafr El-Sheikh Univ. 2016;42(4):580-598.

Omar AE, Ash-Shormillesy SM. Effect of seeding rate and nitrogen fertilization on the yield of flax. J. Product. & Dev. 2006; 11(2):337-350.

Abd Eldaiem MA. Response of some flax genotypes under different plant densities. J. Plant Production, Mansoura Univ. 2015; 6(7):1247-1261.

Andruszczak S, Gawlik-Dziki U, Kraska P, Kwiecińska-Poppe E, Różyło K, Pałys E. Yield and quality traits of two linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivars as affected by some agronomic factors. Plant Soil Environ. 2015;61(6):247-252.

Emam SM. Effectiveness of sowing dates and N rates on productivity of two flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivars. Egypt. J. Agron. 2019;41(3):261-274.

Kariuki LW, Masinde PW, Onyango AN, Githiri SM, Ogila K. The growth and seed yield of five linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties as influenced by nitrogen application. J. Animal & Plant Sci. 2014;22 (3): 3493-3509.

Lafond GP, Irvine B, Johnston AM, May WE, McAndrew DW, Shirtliffe SJ, Stevenson FC. Impact of agronomic factors on seed yield formation and quality in flax. Can. J. Plant Sci. 2008;88:485-500.

Erdoğdu Y, Yaver S, Onemli F. The effect of different seeding rates on grain yield and yield components in some flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties. Int. J. Environ. Agric. Res. 2018;4(1):1-9.

Emam SM. Estimation of straw, seed and oil yields for flax plants (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivars of foliar application of Mn, Fe and Zn under dry environment. Egypt. J. Agron. 2020;42(1): 35-46.

Laza A, Pop G. The influence of fertilization and seeding density on flax oil production quality. Res. J. Agric. Sci. 2012; 44(4):1-7.

Abd El-Mohsen AA, Abdallah AM, Mahmoud GO. Optimizing and describing the influence of planting dates and seeding rates on flax cultivars under Middle Egypt region conditions. J. Appl. Sci. Res. 2013;9 (7):4174-4185.

Gupta M, Kour S, Gupta V, Bharat R, Sharma C. Effect of different doses of fertilizers on yield and NPK uptake of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Bangladesh J. Bot. 2017;46(2):575- 581.

Ahmed RH. Effect of mineral fertilization and plant density on some flax varieties under sandy soil conditions. M. Sc. Thesis, Agron. Depart., Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ., Egypt; 2010.

El-Borhamy AM. Effect of seeding rates and nitrogen fertilizer levels on yield and yield components of two new flax cultivars. J. Agric. Res. Kafr El-Sheikh Univ. 2016; 42(2):183-195.

El-Gedwy EM, Hammam GY, Allam SA, Mostafa SH, El-Shimy KS. Effect of irrigation intervals and nitrogen fertilizer rates on flax yield and some anatomical manifestations. Menoufia J. Plant prod. 2018;3(1):1-19.

Shaker AT, Al-baddrani WA, Mohammed SA. Effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and row spacing on the growth and yield production of flax in north Iraq. Mesopotamia J. Agric. 2012;40(2):224-237.

Channabasavanagouda S, Biradar SA, Chittapur BM, Kulkarni S, Balangoudar SR. Influence of varying seed rate and fertilizer levels on yield and quality of linseed (Linum usitassimum, L.). J. Oilseeds Res. 2018;35(1):71-73.

Taddese G, Tenaye S. Effect of nitrogen on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber yield at Debre Berhan area, Ethiopia. Forest Res. Eng. Int. J. 2018;2(5):284-286.

Ganvit, JB, Sharma S, Surve VH, Ganvit VC. Effect of sowing dates and crop spacing on growth, yield and quality of linseed under south Gujarat condition. J. Pharm. Phytoch. 2019;8(1):388-392.

Teshome M, Tadesse D, Ousman Y. Effects of seed rates and row spacing on yield and yield components of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) at Dabat district of North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia. J. Appl. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2020;7(1):1-5.

Rowell DL. Soil science methods and applications. Library of Congress Cataloging Publication Data. New York. NY 10158. USA; 1995.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis association of official analysis chemists, 13th Ed., Washington, D. C., U. S. A; 1990.

Radwan SR, Momtaz A. The technological properties of flax fibers and the methods of estimating them. El- Falaha J. 1966;46 (5):466-476.

Freed RD. MSTATC microcomputer statistical program. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA; 1991.

Gomez KA, Gomez AA. Statistical procedures for agricultural research. 2nd, (ed). John Wiley and Sons, NY, USA; 1984.