Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Types of Organic Fertilizers on Growth Performance of Amaranthus caudatus (Samaru Local Variety) and Amaranthus cruentus (NH84/452)

J. C. Kahu, C. C. Umeh, A. E. Achadu

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v9i229994

Aims: To evaluate the effect of different types of organic fertilizers on growth performance of Amaranthus caudatus (Samaru local variety) and Amaranthus cruentus (NH84/452).

Study Design: A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used for the experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was carried out in the nursery of a homestead garden at No 20, Isaiah Balat Street, Sabo GRA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Methodology: The study consists of seven treatments which includes control (no fertilizer), 5 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 poultry manure, 5 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 sewage sludge, 35 kg ha-1 and 70 kg ha-1 NPK compound fertilizer and also with Amaranthus caudatus (Samaru local variety) and Amaranthus cruentus (NH84/452) in factorial arrangement fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Growth performance data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and leaf area index from 2 weeks after transplanting (WAT) to 6 weeks after transplanting (WAT).

Results: The plant height and number of leaves of the two varieties were found in the range of 18.30 - 135.67cm and 13.33 - 78.33cm respectively. Leaf area and leaf area index of the two varieties had values in the range of 41.71 - 258.29cm2 and 1.76 - 41.72 respectively. At 6 WAT, 10 t ha-1 poultry manure recorded the highest value for all the growth parameters for both varieties except for leaf length, leaf width and leaf area of Amaranthus caudatus (Samaru local variety), where 10 t ha-1 sewage sludge and 70 kg ha-1 NPK compound fertilizer were highest.

Conclusion: The experimental results of this study have shown that poultry manure had higher growth performance on the two varieties of Amaranth when compared with sewage sludge and NPK compound fertilizer. The application of poultry manures at 10 t ha-1 is therefore recommended for farmers to use to obtain higher yields of Amaranth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Probiotic Yogurt during Storage through Solid-phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography

Ana Cristina Tanello, Cristine Durante de Souza Silveira, Eduardo Carasek, Silvani Verruck, Elane Schwinden Prudencio, Renata D. M. Castanho Amboni

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v9i229995

Two different yogurts, control and probiotic with Bifidobacterium BB-12 were produced and analyzed for their contents of total solids, proteins, pH, counts of probiotic bacteria, and volatile composition during refrigerated storage for 28 days. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction of volatile compounds from the probiotic yogurt containing through HS-SPME combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Post-acidification and decrease in protein content were noted in both yogurts during storage. The results showed that the extraction temperature and the addition of salt were statistically the most influential factors for the extraction of higher amounts of volatile compounds. The volatile compounds detected in the probiotic yogurt were 2-butanone, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanodione, acetone and hexanoic acid. During the 28 days of storage, the only differences noted were between the amounts of 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanodione and hexanoic acid.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of CO2 Evolution during Bioremediation of Clayey and Sandy Soils Contaminated with Used Lubricating Oil

Adebayo Jonathan Adeyemo

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v9i229996

The aim of the study was to evaluate the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in two Brazilian contaminated soil types (clayey S1 and sandy S2) at a loading rate of 30,000 and 45,000 mg/kg. A model soil of 300 g with used lubricating oil was amended with commercially available hydrocarbon degrading microbial consortium: Amnite p1300 as the bioaugmentation (T1), other treatments consist of nutrients amendments - (NH4)2SO4 and K2HPO4 (NPK) as biostimulation (T2), unammended soil - natural attenuation as (T3) and the control soil treated with sodium azide (NaN3) as (T4) were evaluated on the microbial community and the degradation of used lubricating oil. Three microcosm replicated flasks per treatment were incubated, and the performance of each treatment was examined by monitoring CO2 evolution, microbial activity, and oil degradation rate. In Soil 1, T1 produced the highest values of CO2 of (1600.20 mg/kg) and (1347.60 mg/kg) while the least values were recorded in the control (T4) with 89.52 and 102 mg/kg in oil contaminated with 3 and 4.5 % respectively. A similar trend was obtained in the bioaugmented treatment soil (S2) with the highest CO2 production in T1. The best percentage oil degradation was also recorded where the utmost CO2 production was obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Growth Yield and Yield Contributing Characters in Rice

Md. Ibrahim Ali, M. A. Islam, Q. A. Khaliq, M. A. Rouf

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v9i229998

Field experiment was carried out at the field of Department of Agronomy, BSMRAU campus, Gazipur, of Bangladesh during aman season (July-October) of 2017 to study the effect of zinc fertilizer application on growth, yield and zinc partitioning in three rice varieties: (BRRI dhan 56, BRRI dhan 57 and BRRI dhan 62) at three levels of zinc fertilization, no application of zinc, 10and 20 kg Zn ha-1. The highest leaf area indices of 3.15 in BRRI dhan 56, and 3.27 in BRRI dhan 57 were recorded with the application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 at 75 DAT and 3.28 in BRRI dhan 62 with 20 kg Zn ha-1. Through the growth period the SPAD value was the maximum at 10 kg Zn ha-1 in BRRI dhan 56 and BRRI dhan 57 and in BRRI dhan 62 at 20 kg Zn ha-1. The highest CGR, RGR, NAR were recorded at 10 kg Zn ha-1 in BRRI dhan 56 and BRRI dhan 57, and at 20 kg ha-1 in BRRI dhan 62.Zinc fertilizer at 10 kg Zn ha-1significantly increased the number of effective tiller m-2, length of panicle, total number of spikelet’s panicle-1,1000-grain weight, number of filled spikelet’s panicle-1, grain yield and straw yield in BRRI dhan 56 and BRRI dhan 57, and at 20 kg Zn ha-1 in BRRI dhan 62. It was revealed that the rice varieties BRRI dhan 56 and BRRI dhan 57 responded to the application of 10 kg Zn ha-1, while BRRI dhan 62 to 20 kg Zn ha-1.Overall results indicates, application of zinc might be necessary to ensure satisfactory yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity and Abundance of Foliage Insect Communities in Bitter Ground Field with Regard to Diurnal Rhythms within Faisalabad, Pakistan

Komal Abid, Naureen Rana

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v9i229999

Biodiversity is the variability of life on earth that boosts up the ecosystem productivity. Diversity and abundance are the key components that are beneficial for the present and future researchers to control many problems being faced by harmful insects and to promote beneficial insect population for ecosystem sustainability. Therefore, the present study was designed to find out the “Diversity and abundance of foliage insect communities in Bitter gourd field” under the ecological conditions of District Faisalabad. After completing the whole research trials as per methodology, total 211 specimens were collected belonging to 9 orders, 38 families, 63 genera and 73 species in morning and total 213 specimens were collected belonging to 8 orders, 42 families, 58 genera and 65 species in evening. So, keeping in view the importance of these aspects, calculations were made as per Shannon Diversity Index. In bitter gourd fields, maximum diversity was recorded as (1.0533) for evening, while least was recorded (1.0528) for morning and, maximum diversity (H′max) was recorded (2.3284) for evening and least (2.3243) for morning. Maximum evenness was (0.0229) for evening and least (0.0227) for morning while maximum dominance was (1.0229) for evening and least (1.0227) for morning. The maximum value for richness was recorded as (17.1230) for evening while least value (17.0443) for morning.