Open Access Original Research Article

Social and Productive Indicators of Forage Palm and the Survival of Livestock Activity in the Semi-arid Region of Northeastern Brazil

Hermes Alves de Almeida, Elthon Rondinelli de Almeida Soares, José Antonio dos Santos Neto, Ivandro de Oliveira Pinto

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v10i130018

The importance of the cultivation of forage palm (Opuntia fícus indica Mill) for the agriculturalists of the semi-arid region of Northeast of Brazil, in particular the one of the State of Paraiba, is due to its adaptability to the environmental conditions, especially, in the dry period, since it is the only alternative to feed the herd in most of the localities of this region. The plague of carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae) has been decimating the planting of this important forage in the intermediate geographic region of Campina Grande, Paraiba, Brazil. In view of this, it was necessary to carry out a quantitative and/or qualitative diagnosis of the areas cultivated with the traditional palm (giant cultivar) and its revitalization, with the introduction of new varieties resistant to this pest, in four localities of this region, these determinations being the main objectives. The territorial cut included about fifty farms in the four localities, being geo referenced using GPS and satellite imagery from Google Earth. The diagnosis consisted of the application of structured and semi-structured questionnaires, interviews and in loco observations. Data analyzes were performed using statistical distributions of measures of central, dispersion and frequency trends. The main results indicated that forage palm in the semi-arid state of Paraiba, Brazil, is the main or only source of food for ruminants. Carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae) decimated traditional palm varieties and the only alternative was to discard part of the herd and reduce livestock activity. The levels of infestation of carmine cochineal and destruction of palms are of the order of 90%. The program of revitalization of traditional palm cultivation by clams resistant to carmine cochineal has been the alternative for the continuity of livestock activity in this region, although there is a contribution of drought.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Variety and Plant Spacing on Grain and Fodder Yield

Boakye Boateng, Augustine, Wilson, Godfre

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v10i130019

A field experiment was conducted to examine the effect of plant spacing on grain and fodder yield of four cowpeas varieties. Four cowpea varieties i.e. Asetenapa, Asomdwe, Hewale and Videza were sown with three plant spacing i.e. 30 x 15 cm, 45 x 15 cm and 60 x 15 cm at Samboligo in the Bongo District of the Upper East of Ghana.  The experiment was laid in randomized complete block with four replicates in factorial fashion. Cowpea variety and plant spacing significantly influenced grain yield, 1000 seed weight, nodules per plant and plant height. Plant spacing had no significant effect on stem girth, pods per plant, pod length and seed per pods. Variety ‘Hewale’ produced the highest grain yield of 991.3 kg ha-1 while Asetenapa produced the highest fodder yield of 1025.5 kg ha-1. Interactive effect between Asomdwe and 45 x 15 cm had the highest 1000 seed weight (170.6 g) while Asetenapa and 30 x 15 cm produced the highest grain yield (1072.9 kg ha-1). Variety ‘Hewale’ is recommended for commercial grain production while Asetenapa for fodder production. Asetenapa and 30 x 15 cm combination is recommended for commercial grain production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investment Analysis of Small Scale Private Forest Plantation Development in Ogun State, Nigeria

O. A. Fasoro, O. I. Ajewole

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v10i130020

Forest plantation development has the capacity of increasing wood supply and stemming the pressure on natural forest in Nigeria. However, forest under public institution control has not been sustainably managed due to rate of forest resources exploitation and inadequate funding of forestry projects. Hence, this paper examines private investment in forest plantation development with a view to encourage and alert potential private investors on feasibility and benefits of forest plantation development. Measures such as Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Annual Equivalent Value (AEV), Land Expected Value (LEV), Return on Investment (ROI) and Discounted Payback Period (DPBP) were used to analyse the cash flow statement of the investment.

The study revealed that small scale Tectona grandis plantation of 0.4 ha with 12 year rotation had NPV of ₦1,096,118.00, BCR of 2.62, IRR of 35.30%, AEV of ₦208,262.42 ha-1, LEV of ₦1,608,350.84 ha-1, ROI of 162% and DPBP of 5.6 years.  The results showed that investment in small scale forest plantation development is profitable going by the economic returns indices. It is recommended that private forest plantation development should incorporate multiple land use systems in order to increase economic returns and reduce the payback period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Triple Super Phosphate on the Growth and Yield of Boro Rice in Haor Areas of Sunamganj District in Bangladesh

B. K. Goswami, M. A. Kashem, M. A. Aziz, T. K. Saha

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v10i130021

A field experiment was conducted at Bilpar village of Sunamganj district in Bangladesh during November 2016 to May 2017 to find out the effects of Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) fertilizer on the growth and yield of boro rice in haor areas. Two factors viz. varieties (BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan58) and six TSP fertilizer levels [F1- 85 kg TSP ha-1 (Farmers’ practice), F2- 142 kg TSP ha-1, F3- 127 kg TSP ha-1, F4- 112 kg TSP ha-1 (BARC recommended dose), F5- 97 kg TSP ha-1, F6- 82 kg TSP ha-1] were included in the experiment. The experiment was conducted in the farmers’ field and laid out in a RCBD with three replications. Data were taken on plant height and tillers hill-1 at 15 days intervals. The yield and yield contributing parameters were also taken at harvest. Plant height, number of total tillers, effective tillers hill-1, panicle length, sterile spikelets, 1000 grain weight, grain and straw yield varied significantly due to variety. BRRI dhan58 produced higher number of effective tillers (10.60) and grains panicle-1 (136.9) over BRRI dhan29. BRRI dhan58 produced higher grain yield (8.92 t ha-1) compared to BRRI dhan29 (7.27 t ha-1). All the studied parameters differed significantly with the application of TSP fertilizer except non-effective tillers hill-1. Application of 112 kg TSP ha-1 produced the highest number of effective tillers hill-1 (12.00) and the lowest in farmers practice (7.20). Fertilizer Recommendation Guide based TSP fertilizer (112 kg ha-1) produced the highest grain yield (8.80 t ha-1) of boro rice and the lowest grain yield (7.40 t ha-1) in farmers’ practice. Results of the study elucidated that TSP application at 112 kg ha-1 was effective to improve the rice productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Socio-economic Influence of Tillage and Termite on Incidence, Severity and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Selected Owerri Agricultural Zones, Southeast Nigeria

K. O. Ogbedeh, T. T. Epidi, S. A. Dialoke, B. O. Bosah, C. A. Emenyonu, C. O. Cookey, M. O. Nnebue

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v10i130022

The field investigation was conducted in 2015 in four selected Agricultural zones of Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria namely Ezinnihite Mbaise (Zone 1), Owerri North (Zone 2), Mbaitoli (Zone 3) and Owerri West (Zone 4). A random selection of thirty cassava farmers from each of the study areas was made. The sample size was made up of a total of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents. Data were collected through structural questionnaire administration to the respondents on the four selected zones and were analyzed using Descriptive Statistics such as the use of Percentages, Frequencies and Means. Result indicates that majority of the respondents sampled in this study practiced mounding for their cassava production. Also greater proportion of them (respondents) claimed that apart from other known endemic pests like grasshopper, mealybug, green mites etc., termite poses greater threat to their cassava farm. However, highest cassava yield occurred in areas where mounds and/or ridges were practiced. In view of the prevailing high water table of the sampled areas, farmers are advised to continue with the practice of mounding and/or ridging for their cassava production.