Open Access Short Research Article

Responses of Different Explants of Sweet Potato on Modified MS and LS Based Nutrient Media in vitro

P. S. Michael

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v11i430064

A good number of reports on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) tissue culture using different tissues of various cultivars with varying level of efficiency and reproducibility are available but callus induction and plantlet regeneration are recalcitrant and limited to a few genotypes in response to different treatments in vitro. Reported in this paper is a procedure in which several explants of three high yielding and drought tolerant sweet potato cultivars (SK010, WHCH005 and PRAP496), mostly grown and cultivated in the highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG) were used to induce embryogenic callus and regenerate plantlets. To achieve a reliable and an efficient system for inducing embryogenic callus on stem, petiole and leaf disc explants, a modified form of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) media, supplemented with 1 gL-1 picloram and 8 gL-1 agar was used. This procedure resulted in large amount of embryogenic calli that were potentially capable of regenerating whole plantlets on all the different types of explants tested. Further attempts made in plantlet regeneration failed, however ways in which improvement of the tested regeneration media can be made for plant regeneration in similar studies were discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Subclinical Mastitis Survey on Milk Composition in Dairy Sheep in Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Mahmood Ahmad Hussein

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v11i430058

Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland, characterized by the changes in the physical characteristics of the udder or milk. A cross sectional study was carried out in June, 2017 to December, 2018 to estimate the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) on milk composition in dairy sheeps in Kafri city of Kurdistan region of Iraq. Milk samples were gathered from residences of 295 sheeps with subclinical mastitis (California mastitis test (CMT) positive and somatic cell counts (SCC) >600,000 cells/ml in individual quarter foremilk), as well as from 50 healthy controls. Contrasted to the levels watched in milk from healthy quarters, milk from quarters with subclinical mastitis exhibited raised high chloride (>0.12 in contrast with <0.12 g/dl), pH (5.65 in comparison to 5.57), sodium (86.87 vs 47.81 mg/dl), albumin (4.52 in contrast with 1.75 g/dl), immunoglobulins (24.66% in comparison to 5.73%) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (1344.14 vs 449.84 IU/L). In compare, reduced values were discovered for potassium (147.47 in comparison to 161.34 mg/dl), inorganic phosphorous (19.42 in comparison to 26.48 mg/dl), calcium (86.35 vs 121.12 mg/dl), β-lactoglobulin (30.22% in comparison to 52.18%) and α- lactalbumin (19.15% vs 24.52%). In this study, no changes were seen in blood serum LDH activity. Moreover, an increase in positive response to CMT was found to be accompanied by an almost proportionate increase in immunoglobulin values to 44.32% and reduce of α-lactalbumin levels in milk serum (p<0.01). These alterations in LDH activity, pH, mineral concentrations and protein fractions in milk of quarters display the presence of tissue injury provoked by SCM. Therefore, these parameters can be used in the diagnosis of mastitis. The current study revealed that changes of the foremilk chemical composition are connected to the subclinical mastitis; and that mastitis progression of quarters (CMT scores) influenced protein fractions in milk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Crop Bio-life on Growth and Yield of Wild Okra (Corchorus olitorious L.) in a Sub-tropical Environment

Nosihle Mndzebele, Michael T. Masarirambi, Kwanele A. Nxumalo, Paul K. Wahome

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v11i430059

Crop bio-life is used as a foliar spray to enhance the symbiotic effect between roots and soil micro-organisms enabling the plant to better assimilate nutrients essential for growth. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of crop bio-life on growth, yield and quality of wild okra. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The experiment consisted of four treatments. The treatments were different crop bio-life concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 75 ppm.  The highest plant height (103.5 cm) was obtained in plants treated with 25 ppm crop bio-life and the lowest plant height (91.2 cm) was in plants treated with 75 ppm crop bio-life. Plants with the highest chlorophyll content (29.08 µmol per m2) were those treated with 50 ppm crop bio-life while the lowest (18.6 µmol per m2) was 0 ppm treatment.  The highest wild okra yield of 22.3 g leaf wet mass was obtained in plants treated with 25 ppm crop bio-life and the lowest yield (12.9 g) obtained from plants applied with 75 ppm crop bio-life. From the results of this study, it was observed that the plants treated with 25 ppm crop bio-life grew better and had a higher yield, therefore, it is the treatment recommended to farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Lambda-cyhalothrin on Insect Pest Infestation and Performance of Okra in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

A. A. Oso, A. J. Okunoye

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v11i430060

Okra, an economically important vegetable crop with numerous benefits to human, is often attacked by large number of insect species. These insect species cause direct damage to okra plants and also serve as vectors of diseases resulting in economic loss. Control of these insect pests given reducing hunger and poverty, and fostering agricultural ecosystems becomes imperative.  This study aimed at the use of indigenous medicinal plant and a sub-lethal dose of synthetic insecticide to check the invasion of pests and performance of okra. The field laid in a randomized complete block design of four treatments replicated three times. The treatments included; Curcuma longa 5%, Curcuma longa 20%, lambda-cyhalothrin, and a control. Data were collected on insect pest species recovered after treatment application and yield of okra. All data were subjected to analysis of variance and differences between the treatment means were separated using Duncan’s multiple range test. C. longa (20%) compared effectively with the sub-lethal dose of lambdacyhalothin (0.5 ml/l) in their attack against the targeted pests. Although higher number and weight of pods were harvested from synthetically treated plots, the C. longa treated plots produced significantly higher number and weight of harvested pods when compared with untreated plots. Water extract of the rhizomes also conferred some protection against okra pests; we recommend that farmers in Ekiti State adopt this botanical against the notorious flea beetles especially when the profits accrue from okra sales outweigh their net investment.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Rates of Cattle Manure on Growth, Yield and Quality of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in a Sub-tropical Environment of Eswatini (Swaziland)

Tandzisile Z. Mabuza, Michael T. Masarirambi, Kwanele A. Nxumalo, Paul K. Wahome

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v11i430061

Green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable in the Kingdom of Eswatini. However, there is rare information on pepper production using cattle manure.  The experiment was conducted at the University of Swaziland, Luyengo Campus, in the Horticulture Department Lath-house to determine the effects of different rates of cattle manure on the growth and yield of green pepper in order to come up with a suitable application rate for green pepper. Cattle manure was applied at different rates of 20, 40, 60 and 80 tons/ha in a Randomized Complete Block Design, while 2:3:2 which was used as a control was applied at 150 kg/ha. For every increase in the application level/rate of the cattle manure, there was a considerable increase in the growth parameters that were measured. Results obtained from this experiment indicate that applying cattle manure at 80 tons/ha gave relatively higher yields. This cattle manure rate can be used by farmers in green pepper production.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Vermicompost and Phosphorus on the Development of Soybean Plant

Sezer Şahin, Mustafa Ceritoğlu, Hakan Kartal

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v11i430065

Aims: Vermicompost (worm manure), which has gained importance in the last quarter of the century among innovative agricultural practices, has positive effects on both plant development and soil structure. The shortage of organic matter in soil reduces the productivity of agricultural production and hampers its continuity. Vermicompost products confer plant nutrient elements, various hormones, enzymes, humic substances and especially organic matter to the soil. This study aimed to study the effects of vermicompost application and phosphorus fertilizer rates on soybean in limy soil conditions.

Study Design: The affect of vermicompost applications was evaluated with four doses of vermicompost (Control, 1.5, 3, and % 6) in three doses of phosporus applications. So, 0, 50 ppm and 100 ppm phosporus blocks had all four doses of vermicompost. Optimum level (100 ppm N and 100 ppm K) of N and K fertilisers were applied to all plants tested. Total plant biomass, leaf wet and dry weights, bean wights, plant height and nitrogen compositions of leaf and bean were measured.

Results: The results were detected significant at % 1 on all parameters. As control plants’ leaf + scape wet and dry weights were measured 3.29 and 1.23 g respectively, they were measured 8.6 and 5.22 g at plants used vermicompost and phosphorus together. With vermicompost and phosphorus aplications, the phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes increased too. While control plants’ leaves have % 0.38 phosphorus content, it was measured % 0.84 at plant aplicated vermicompost and phosphorus.

Coclusion: As a result, we observed increased P uptake levels with increased doses of vermicompost application in limysoils.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Procedure for Agrobacterium tumefaciens Mediated Genetic Transformation of Sweet Potato

Patrick S. Michael

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v11i430066

Many sweet potato plants have been successfully transformed but the transgenic plants regenerated, however, have been limited to a few genotypes. Reported in this paper is a procedure in which several explants of three sweet potato genotypes from Papua New Guinea (PNG) were used to transform and regenerate transgenic plants. To achieve stable transformation, an efficient shoot regeneration system for different explants was developed. The shoot regeneration protocol developed enabled for a reproducible stable transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain 1065. The plasmid pVDH65 contains the npt II gene for kanamycin (km) resistance, hpt gene for hygromycin resistance and Gus-intron reporter gene (GUS) for β-glucuronidase. Explants inoculated with the bacterial strain were co-cultured for 3, 5 and 7 days (d) in the dark on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium without growth hormones. After co-cultivation, the explants were washed in liquid MS medium containing 500 mg L-1 cefotaxime, rinsed in sterile, deionised water for 10 mins and cultured on km selection medium containing 100 mg L-1 km followed by transfer of explants to 125 mg L-1 km after 14 d of culture. The km-resistant shoots selected on the former km concentration were transferred to the latter for double selection. Km-resistant shoots obtained at 125 mg L-1 were rooted on MS based medium also containing 0.008 mg L-1 IAA, 0.03 mg L-1 kinetin and 0.001 mg L-1 folic acid. This double selection method led to effective elimination of escapes (up to 75%) and successful recovery of transgenic plants from stem explants at more than 25%, leaf discs 10% and petioles 13.3% of each sweet potato cultivar. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the three km-resistant and GUS-positive plants revealed the presence of the expected fragment for npt II. This is the first report of successfully transforming sweet potato plants with bacterial strain 1065 and selection of transgenic plants at km concentrations higher than 100 mg L-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Different Phosphorus Doses on the Growth of Pepper Seedling (Capsicum annuum L.)

Sezer Şahin, Seda Bice Atakli

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2019/v11i430067

Phosphorus (P) is part of the nucleic acid structure of plants which is responsible for the regulation of protein synthesis. Phosphorus plays a major role in the growth of new tissue and division of cells. Plants perform complex energy transmissions, a function that requires phosphorus. If the value of phosphorus in your land is low, this can be stressed enough. One of the benefits of phosphorus in plants is proper development of the roots and hastening of maturity. Phosphorus is an effective element in root development. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of phosphorus fertilizer on seedling development in seedling production. Amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as fertilizer applications in seedling cultivation affect seedling quality. Effects of different doses phosphorus (0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm) application on the quality of cucumber seedlings were investigated at in the study. Istek F1 pepper cultivar was used. Macro nutrients were 100 ppm N, 100 ppm K, and the appropriate nutrients were given in the appropriate amount. Phosphorus applications on plant seedlings were effective on the development of vegetative parts of the plant at a statistically significant 1% level. At the end of a 35-day development period, seedling length was measured as 6.56 cm in the control application and 10.7 and 10.4 cm in the 100 and 150 ppm application of phosphorus doses, respectively. Hypocotyl length was 1.58 cm in control application, 1.66 in 50 ppm, 2.02 cm in 100 ppm P and 1.56 cm in 150 ppm application. Leaf number, stem diameter, root height, root weight and leaf wiegt were determined in the study. Phosphorus applications increased the amount of leaf weight and root weight. It was determined that 50 ppm P application was insufficient, ideal results were obtained in between 100 and 150 ppm P application. The ideal seedling for sale is neither too short nor too long. Medium size and good root development is the desired feature in seedlings.