Technical Efficiency of Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Production in Molo Sub County, Kenya

Pauline Nyokabi Kamau, Geoffrey Kingori Gathungu, Rael Nkatha Mwirigi

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v13i330104

This study focused on measuring farm level technical efficiency among smallholder Irish potato farmers in Molo Sub County and its determinants. Descriptive research design was applied. Cross-sectional data was collected through multistage sampling from smallholder Irish potato farmers located in Molo Sub County from April to June 2019. A Stochastic frontier approach assuming a Cobb-Douglas production function was adopted to analyze the level of technical efficiency and explain variations in this technical efficiency across farmers and estimation was done by applying the maximum likelihood method. Mean technical efficiency was 70.7%. The statistically significant variables with respect to the farm inputs were land (0.262), seed (0.629), fertilizer (-0.299) and fungicide (0.131) variables respectively. However, fertilizer variable had negative effects on Irish potato production. Education (-0.061), gender (-0.262), access to extension services (-0.078) and farmer group (-0.217) variables were significant and influenced technical inefficiency negatively.Increase in smallholder farmers’ literacy level, accessibility to extension services and farmer groups may improve Irish potato production technical efficiency. However, gender contribution towards Irish potato production technical efficiency needs a deeper understanding.

Contribution of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) – Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Intercropping to Productivity of the System in Semi-deciduous Forest Zone of Ghana

Michael Odenkey Quaye, Joseph Sarkodie-Addo, Agyeman Kennedy, Patrick Atta Poku Snr, Clement Gyeabour Kyere

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v13i330105

This study was conducted to assess the growth, yield and cost effectiveness of okra-cowpea intercropping system at the Plantation Section of Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, during the major rainy season of 2017.  The okra was planted on 1st May, 2017 and the cowpea introduced at varying planting dates i.e. at the same time, 1, 2, 3 and 4 WAP. Sole okra and cowpea served as control. The experimental plots were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with seven (7) treatments and replicated three (3) times. The data collected were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the treatment means separated by least significance difference (LSD) at 5% probability. Results showed that time of introduction of the cowpea caused a reduction (P < 0.05) in the growth and yield of the component crops. The partial equivalent ratio of cowpea planted at the same time with okra and one week later was greater (P < 0.05) than the component okra whiles that of okra was greater than cowpea in 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The Land Equivalent Ratio of all the intercrops was greater than 1 showing that intercropping okra with cowpea was beneficial. The highest Gross Monetary Returns, Land Equivalent Ratio and Monetary Equivalent Ratio of GHȻ 7,039.40, 1.75 and 1.31, respectively were recorded in okra intercropped with cowpea 2 WAP. Okra sown with cowpea at the same time recorded a disadvantage (0.84) in Monetary Equivalent Ratio. To ensure higher yield and economic returns, cowpea could be introduced into okro 2 weeks after planting okro.

Fall Armyworm in South Asia: Threats and Management

Suraj Lamsal, Shelton Sibi, Sova Yadav

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 21-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v13i330106

Fall armyworm arrived on the Indian subcontinent in May 2018 and now it has spread across  India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and approaching more beyond South East Asia. Strong flying capacity, climate adaptability, and wide host range makes them a better colonizing agent than other species of armyworms. Despite maize being primarily infested  in this region, infestation on sugarcane, sorghum, cotton and cabbage have already been reported from India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. National agricultural research bodies  like ICAR, IIMR, NARC, BARI etc. as well as international organizations like FAO, CGIAR, CIMMYT and CABI are working at different levels in effort to develop managemen strategies to combat the pest. Since it is practically impossible to eradicate the pest now, it is essential to work for long term management and in keeping pest population below economically injury level. Reliance on synthetic pesticides only is a temporary way of dealing with the pest. Educating the farmers themselves about the pest and practicing integrated approach of management compatible and feasible in the region would be more sustainable. Identification and using native species of natural enemies, such as predators, parasites and parasitoids is the current need of research. The experiences of small holder farmers in Africa and South America in fall armyworm management might be relevant to South Asia.

Efficient Management of Farm Resources and Food Consumption Level of Pond Fishers in North-Central Bangladesh

Md. Abdul Quddus, Khondakar Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Shishir Kumar Sen, Md. Abu Shama

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 35-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v13i330107

Aims: The study was conducted to assess the efficient management of farm resources of pond fish farmers and level of their household food consumption in order to deal with sustainable development of pond culture system and food security issue.

Study Design: Three unions out of 9 in Melandah upazila of Jamalpur district were selected, as a large number of ponds are available. Sixty fish farmers were randomly selected from the population of 200.  Data were collected using a structured questionnaire during January to March 2017.

Methods: Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production function and technical inefficiency effect model were used to assess efficient management of farm resources. Also, multiple regression models in double-log forms were employed to determine the factors influencing households’ per capita food consumption, calorie intake and protein intake.

Results: Gross return and net profit were $8,081 and$2,262 respectively and cost benefit ratio was 1.39. Technical inefficiency estimates show that farmers’ education (0.0009) and training (0.0042) had insignificant but positive sign for fish production. Experience (-0.0083) and culture period (-0.0054) had significant and negative sign and age of farmers has insignificant negative sign indicated that technical efficiency increased with the increase in experience and fish culture period. The mean efficiency was 0.92 in fish farming indicates 8% of fish production could be increased with the existing resources and available technology. Per capita per day food consumption was 1288.36 g, calorie intake 2592.23 k. calorie and protein intake 84.27 gram.

Conclusion: A linkage between Upazila Fisheries Officer, Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, fisheries extension workers and pond fish farmers should be established. Calorie and protein intake of the farm households is higher due to increase of food sufficiency of the country and buying capacity of the farmers but the nutritional wellbeing of them is still low.

Insecticidal Property of Black Seed (Nigella sativa) Powder as an Eco-friendly Management of Skin Beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in Atlantic Codfish Gadus morhua (Gadiformes: Gadidae)

Bob-Manuel, R. Bekinwari, Ukoroije, R. Boate

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 47-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v13i330108

The bio-pesticidal potential of Nigella sativa seed powder in the management of Dermestes maculatus in codfish (Gadus morhua) was evaluated in the laboratory. D. maculatus beetles were obtained from naturally infested smoked fish, cultured at ambient temperature for the establishment of new stock and same age adults. Purchased N. sativa seeds were ground into fine powder, weighed at 0.4 g, 0.8 g, 1.2 g, 1.6 g and 2.0 g for use in the bioassay. The treatments were separately added into 40 g codfish kept in Kilner jar into which two sexed pairs of D. maculatus were introduced and observed. From the results, the number of the developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults) of D. maculatus in codfish treated with N. sativa seed powder was inversely proportional to the concentration of the seed powder. Thus, an increase in the concentration of N. sativa powder generated reduction in the mean number of D. maculatus progeny found in the codfish after 35 days as follows: at 0.4 g, progeny development was (103.50, 7.75, 2.50) and 77.00, 8.25 and 1.00 at 2.0 g respectively for larva, pupa and adult stages. Percentage protection conferred by the botanical on D. maculatus showed that all the doses applied were effective. Corrected mortality of D. maculatus adults after 45 days of exposure to the different doses of N. sativa treatments also increased with an increase in concentration of N. sativa from 0.4 g to 2.0 g. Frass weight generated by D. maculatus activity in codfish treated with N. sativa powder was high in codfish treated at 1.6 g. Finally, N. sativa characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively for phytochemicals, proved the secondary metabolites with bio-pesticide potentials against D. maculatus such as phenols, Alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoid, saponin, tannin, Cardiac glycoside, anthraquinone, steroid and oxalate in different proportion, therefore, should be utilized in Integrated Pest Management program of stored codfish.