Open Access Short Research Article

Fruit Setting in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties as Influenced by Genotype and Maternal Inheritance

U. N. Ukwu, S. O. Muojiama, B. Olasanmi

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 36-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v13i430112

Hand pollination was carried out among five varieties of cassava in reciprocals to investigate the influence of genotype and maternal inheritance on fruit setting in cassava varieties. The experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Agronomy University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Three yellow flesh varieties (IITA-TMS-I011412, IITA-TMS-I011368 and IITA-TMS-I070539) with high β-carotene content and two white flesh varieties (IITA-TMS-I30752 and COB-7-25) with high dry matter content were crossed in a reciprocal, with no selfing to produce fourteen hybrid seeds. Data obtained were subjected to correlation analysis and two-tailed t-test. The result showed that both genotype and maternal inheritance influenced fruit setting in cassava species. The cross IITA-TMS-I011368 x IITA-TMS-I011412 gave the highest fruit set percentage (57.1) and was followed by IITA-TMS-I30752 x IITA-TMS-I011412 (39.8) IITA-TMS-I011368 x IITA-TMS-I070539 (26.5) IITA-TMS-I070539 x IITA-TMS-I011412 (24.9) and IITA-TMS-I30752 x IITA-TMS-I011368 (24.1). Significant reciprocal difference (p = 0.02) was recorded between the F1 and the reciprocal crosses, which implies that fruit setting in cassava is significantly influenced by cytoplasmic genes which are exclusively transmitted by the maternal parent. IITA-TMS-I011368 and IITA-TMS-I011412 were the best female and male parent across the five genotypes, with mean fruit set percentage of 24.9 and 28.8, respectively. In this regard, the best female and male parents (IITA-TMS-I011368 and IITA-TMS-I011412) are good candidates for generation of large populations of β-caroten-rich cassava varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multivariate Analyses of Yield and Its Components in Some Peanut Genotypes

A. Abd El- Saber, Zeinab E. Ghareeb, M. A. Ahmed

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v13i430109

Aims: For proposing a statistical approach to select of the most promising genotypes for peanut breeding program.

Place and Duration of Study: Twenty peanut genotypes were evaluated at Matana Agricultural Station Research, Luxor governorate, Egypt during 2018 and 2019.

Study Design: In a randomized complete block design with three replications.

Methodology: Analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation coefficients, factor analysis, cluster method and some genetic parameters for seed yield and its components were calculated.

Results: Results revealed that significant differences among the tested genotypes for the eight studied traits. Correlation coefficients indicated that seed yield was significantly correlated with all traits except plant height. Meanwhile, factor analysis was used to remove multi-collinearity problems, to simplify the complex relationships and to reduce variables number (into three extracted factors). 100-seed weight, number of branches/plant, 100-pod weight and seed oil content (%) with seed yield/plant traits which present in the 1st factor explained 42.039% of the total variance and recorded high heritability coupled with high genetic advance %. ANOVA results for factor scores obtained (native best multi-traits data) revealed that genotypes varied significantly.

Conclusion: Factor and cluster analysis agreed in grouping Ismailia 2, Intr. 267, Intr. 182, Intr. 332 and Sohag 107 to be promising genotypes to increase peanut seed yield, whereas genotypes Intr. 504 and intr. 510 could be utilized to increase peanut seed oil content %. Then, the utilization of a factor score as a variable in ANOVA analysis was more appropriate rather than the original data. Consequently, factor scores (as a native data) would be more agreeable to selection and can be employed in plant breeding programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Search Ferments from Microorganisms Isolated from the Sap of the Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

Karamoko Detto, Moroh Jean-Luc Aboya, Kokora Aya Philomène, Tiba Zogbé Yogonin, Dje Koffi Marcellin

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 16-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v13i430110

The aim of this study is the search for ferments from microorganisms isolated from the sap of the oil palm. It consisted in determining, before and after 24 hours of fermentation, the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of palm wine using standard methods. The pH, the rate of reducing sugars and the dry matter levels decrease while the acidity, vitamin C and the water content increase after 24 hours of fermentation. The pH decreases from 3.56±0.01 to 3.24±0.01 in Dura palm wines with the Pisi Sab S10 microorganism, while in Pisifera wine this pH increases from 3.93±0.01 to 3.82±0.01 with Pisi Sab 30S3. The titrable acidities increase from 0.71%±0.01 to 0.79%±0.01 in the sap of the Dura palm with the Pisi Sab S10 microorganism, while in the wine of Pisifera the rate increases from 0.67%±0.01 to 0.76%±0.01 with the microorganism Pisi Sab 30S3. Reducing the levels of sugar decrease to minimum values. They increase from 86.34±0.02 to 42.05±0.01 mg/mL in the sap of the Dura palm with the Pisi Sab S10 microorganism, whereas in that of the Pisifera wine, the rate increases from 32.07±0.02 to 14.53±0.02 mg/mL with the Pisi Sab 30S3 microorganism. The level of alcohol increases to reach maximum values of 4.24%±0.01 with the Pisi Sab S10 microorganism in Dura palm sap and 4.29%±0.01 in Pisifera sap with the Pisi Sab microorganism. 30S3. The microorganism giving the best organoleptic qualities in the sap of the Dura palm is Pisi Sab S10 while that of Pisifera is Pisi Sab 30S3. These microorganisms thanks to their efficiencies could be used as ferments in the agro-food industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organochlorine Residues Levels in Some Selected Kolanuts (Cola nitida Schott & Endl.) in Côte d’Ivoire

Deigna-Mockey Viviane, Biego Henri, Nyamien Yves, Konan Ysidor, Coulibaly Adama, Ake Assi, Sidibe Daouda

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 24-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v13i430111

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the level of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues in some selected kolanuts in Côte d’Ivoire.

Study Design: Kolanuts samples were collected from farmers, collectors and urban stores in 3 regions, in particular western, southwestern and eastern of Côte d’Ivoire.

Place and Duration of Study: Health Department of Hydrology Health and Toxicology, Training and Research Unit of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, running 2017-2018.

Methodology: A total of 225 samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector.

Results: Data showed that all 17 pesticides analyzed were detected in kolanuts samples. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in OCPs sub-group used by farmers and traders in all producing region. The mean levels of HCHs, DDTs and cyclodienes were ranged from 0.07± 0.01– 0.91± 0.05 mg/kg, 0.15±0.01 – 0.61±0.12 mg/kg and 0.12±0.03 - 0.84±0.46 mg/kg, respectively. Otherwise, farmer’s levels of OCPs were lower than those detected in kolanuts from collectors and urban stores samples. Thus, compared to the MRL set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization, the farmer’s samples are lower than limits fixed, unlike the contents registered with collectors and urban stores.

Conclusion: There is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in kolanuts produced in Côte d’Ivoire and take steps that ensure health safety of end users. Care should be taken since residues could pose chronic health risk for adults and children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Allocative Efficiency of Maize Production in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

J. T. Ayodele, A. A. Ijah, O. Olukotun, B. F. Ishola, O. N. Oladele, U. F. Yahaya, S. Omodona

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 44-54
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v13i430113

This study analyzed the allocative (cost) efficiency of maize production in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 100 respondents. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier cost function model. Results revealed that 87% of the respondents were males with 99% of the farmers in their working age group of between 21-60 years. Most (81%) of them were married with 52% of the maize farmers having household size of more than 5 people. Also, 52.0% had post primary school education. The results of the maximum likelihood estimate parameters of the stochastic frontier cost function revealed that cost of maize output, cost of labour, cost of fertilizers, cost of seeds and cost of transportation were significant at 1% level of probability. The allocative efficiency indices revealed that allocative efficiency of the sampled farmers ranged from 1.05 to 3.25 with a mean of 1.31, implying that an average farmer in the study area has costs that are about 31% above the minimum defined by the frontier. This shows that 31% of their costs are wasted compared to the best farmers producing the same maize output using the same technology. The study therefore recommends that adequate farm inputs should be provided at low cost to the farmers and adequate training should be given to the maize farmers in the area of minimizing their expenses on farm inputs in order to avoid cost wastage and become more efficient in allocation of their resources.