Open Access Original Research Article

Self-Pollinated (Geinotogami) of Uncaria gambir (Hunter) Roxb. Type Udang

Muhammad Rizki, Indra Dwipa, Aprizal Zainal

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v14i430136

Aims: The research aimed to study the ability of natural and artificial self-pollinated (Geitonogamy) of gambir.

Study Design: Experimental method consisted of determining the sample plants. Sampling determination was conducted by non probability sampling, purposive sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was conducted in the UPT Experimental Garden of the Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University, Padang from September 2019 to December 2019

Methodology: an experimental method consisted of determining the sample plants, conducting natural and artificial geitonogamy self-pollinated systems, observing sample plants, collecting data based on the experiment, and sample-testing in the laboratory. Sample determination selected by non-probabilistic sampling with purposive sampling method. Observation included percentage of pollination, percentage of fertilization, number of fruit formed, pollen fertility and sterility

Results: Data observations were analyzed with simple statistics. The results showed that (1) the percentage of pollination through the geitonogamy natural pollination system of udang gambier type was 89.30%, (2) the percentage of fertilization in the geitonogami's own natural pollination system was 10.68% and artificial was 27.5%, (3) the average percentage of pollen fertility was 56.56% and the pollen sterility was 43.44% tested with the bromothymol blue staining method.

Conclusion: Artificial geitonogami self-pollination was potential to develop for gambir cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Straw, Seed Yield and Quality of Three Linum usitatissimum L. Cultivars in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate and Plant Density

El-Saeed M. M. El- Gedwy, Gaber Y. M. Hammam, Salah A. H. Allam, Saber H. A. Mostafa, Khaled S. S. El- Shimy

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 8-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v14i430137

Methodology: Two field experiments were conducted on the Experimental Farm at El-Gemmeiza Research Station, Gharbia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during two successive winter seasons of 2018-19 and 2019-20.

Aims: To investigate the effect of three nitrogen fertilizer rates, i.e. 30, 50 and 70 kg N feddan-1 [one feddan (fed) = 4200 m2] and three plant densities, i.e. 1500, 2000 and 2500 seeds m-2 on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) yield and its quality of three cultivars of flax, i.e. Sakha 3, Giza 11 and Giza 12.

Results: Results in combined analysis of the two seasons showed that Sakha 3 cultivar significantly produced the maximum total plant height, technical stem length, upper branching zone length, No. of seeds capsule-1, total fiber percentage, fiber yield plant-1, fiber yield fed-1, fiber length and fiber fineness. Meanwhile, the highest No. of basal branches plant-1, straw yield plant-1, straw yield fed-1 and seed oil content were recorded with Giza 12 cultivar. While, Giza 11 cultivar gave the maximum stem diameter, No. of upper branches plant-1, No. of capsules plant-1, No. of seeds plant-1, seed index, seed yield plant-1, seed yield fed-1, harvest index, oil yield plant-1 and oil yield fed-1. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer rates from 30 up to 70 kg N fed-1 caused significant increases in almost straw, fiber, seed and oil yields and its related traits of flax, on the other hand, fiber fineness which significantly decreased with increasing nitrogen rates. Flax plants growing at 1500 seeds m-2 markedly gave the greatest No. of basal branches plant-1, stem diameter, straw yield plant-1, upper branching zone length, No. of upper branches plant-1, No. of capsules plant-1, No. of seeds plant-1, seed yield plant-1, harvest index, oil yield plant-1 and fiber yield plant-1. Meanwhile, the maximum total plant height, technical stem length, straw yield fed-1, seed yield fed-1, oil yield fed-1, total fiber percentage, fiber yield fed-1, fiber length and fiber fineness were obtained from flax planting at 2500 seeds m-2. The maximum fiber yield were recorded from the interactions among treatments Sakha 3 X 70 kg N fed-1, Sakha 3 X 2500 seeds m-2, 70 kg N fed-1 X 2500 seeds m-2 and Sakha 3 X 70 kg N fed-1 X 2500 seeds m-2. Meanwhile, the maximum seed and oil yields fed-1 were recorded from the interactions between treatments Giza 11 X 70 kg N fed-1, Giza 11 X 2500 seeds m-2, 70 kg N fed-1 X 2500 seeds m-2 and Giza 11 X 70 kg N fed-1 X 2500 seeds m-2.

Generally, it could be concluded that Sakha 3 cultivar under soil fertilized by 70 kg N fed-1 with plant density of 2500 seeds m-2 to maximizing fiber yield fed-1, while Giza 11 cultivar with the same rates of nitrogen and plant density to maximizing seed and oil yields fed-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Line × Tester Method Used to Evaluate the Inbred Lines of Field Corn

M. M. Hoque, H. Z. Raihan, Tanjila Nasreen Trina, Md. Razzab Ali

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v14i430138

Nineteen selected lines of field corn were crossed in a line × tester method with two testers to produce 38 hybrids during rabi 2018-2019. In the following year, all the hybrids were raised along with five commercial checks in an alpha lattice design with two replications. The lines E34, BML75, BML76, BML249, BIL106, CML465, CML481 and CML487 were better among the parents, showing GCA effects for yield and other traits could be used extensively in hybrid breeding program owing to increase yield. Furthermore, based on mean, SCA effects and standard heterosis of yield value, the crosses BML75 x BIL79, E34XBIL157, BML76 x BIL157 and BML249 x BIL157 were found to be better to increase the grain yield along with other traits and play pivotal role to development of commercial hybrid.

Open Access Original Research Article

How does Extension Education Contribute to Agricultural Development? Insights from Extension Education of Green River Project in Nigeria

Nnadi, Onyinyechi Ifeanyi, Onwubuya, Elizabeth Amechi

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 38-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v14i430139

Due to the need to explain how extension education adds to Agricultural development in Nigeria, extension service of Green River Project was evaluated. In recognition of the roles of Agricultural development in reducing poverty and promoting food security, agricultural programs with their extension services component have been implemented in Nigeria. The study examined the teaching methods and impact of the extension service of Green River Project on fish farmers in the study area. Data collection involved use of interview schedule and questionnaire to elicit information from 140 respondents. Program evaluation models reviewed include logic model, Kirkpatrick learning evaluation model and Boon programming model. A framework for planning and evaluating extension education program was generated. Results indicated that extension education of GRP had significant impact on some conditions of the farmers such as their quantity of fish produce (t= 6.279; p≤ 0.05), income (t=7.390) and family feeding standard (X2=26.5; p≤ 0.05). It was recommended that there should be collaboration of GRP with other agencies that provide similar services to fish farmers in Niger Delta areas like other agricultural projects of some oil companies in the area and proper measures should be put in place to provide internet services for GRP personnel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Feeding Diets Containing Pearl Millet Supplemented with Enzyme on the Carcass and Haematological Values of Broiler Chicken

John Amedu Edache, Lydia Inyam, Stephen Ejembi Edache

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2020/v14i430140

Pearl millet, which is comparable to maize in terms of its metabolizable energy content is an identified potential replacement for maize in broiler diets. However, as the competition and price of maize continues to spike, the continuous need to completely replace maize in broiler diets is imperative. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing pearl millet supplemented with enzyme NatuzymeTM on the carcass characteristics and haematological values of broiler chickens. 150 two weeks-old broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 birds per pen translating into 10 birds per replicate and fed an isonitrogenous (23%CP) starter diet of control diet (A); 0% (B); 10% (C); 20% (D); 30.01% and (E) 37.41 % pearl millet. Similarly, an isonitrogenous (21%CP) finisher diet of control diet (A); 0% (B); 10.64% pearl millet (C); 21.28% (D); 31.92% and (E) 39.27 % of pearl millet for 6 weeks. The birds were randomly allotted to the diets in a completely randomized design with feed and water given ad libitum. With the exception of drumstick of birds fed diet D which was significantly lower than the other diets, the results showed that the carcass values (parameters) of broilers fed 100% pearl millet were similar or non-superior to the control group and the other diets. Similarly, blood parameters were not significantly different between groups. These results show that pearl millet supplemented with enzyme can replace maize in broiler diets without affecting carcass yields and haematological parameters.