Open Access Original Research Article

Okra Production Constraints and Awareness of Seed-Borne Fungi Infection in Ten Major Okra Growing Communities of the Ashanti Region of Ghana

P. Cobbinah, C. K. Kwoseh

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v15i430157

Okra production is one of the major sources of livelihood for the majority of farmers in the Ashanti region of Ghana. In view of this a survey was conducted among okra farmers in 10 major okra growing communities in Ashanti region of Ghana namely Mankranso, Mfensi-Adankwame, Beposo, Abompe, Kotokuom, Nkwanta-Kesse, Atwima Mim, Abaesua, Offinso and Nerebehi between October, 2017 and March, 2018 to assess their production constraints and awareness of seed-borne fungi infection menace and it management in okra. Data were obtained from 100 okra farmers selected using multi-stage sampling procedure through the use of structured questionnaire and interviews. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows. Descriptive statistics were used and means were presented using tables and graphs. There was a clear dominance of male (75 %) as against female (25 %). Ninety-one percent (91%) of the farmers were married. Fifty four percent (54%) had basic education and 43% had no formal education. Approximately, 42 % of the farmers have been in okra production for over 10 years. Fifty three percent of the farmers intercropped okra with other vegetables. Majority (38%) of the farmers cultivated okra from two to three hectares. Most of the farmers (34 %) ranked pest infestation followed by diseases (24 %) as the major constraints of okra production. Majority (77 %) of the farmers were not aware of seed-borne fungi of okra and therefore most (73 %) of them did not manage the infection.  Farmers should therefore be educated by extension officers on seed-borne fungi to create their awareness of the seed-borne infection in the study areas for effective management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Silicon and Nitrogen Fertilization on Plant and Soil Nutrition and Rice Yield Grown in Typic Ustifluvent Soil

P. Aravinth Kumar, M. V. Sriramachandra Sekharan, T. Muthukumararaja

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v15i430159

Aim: Assess the effect of silicon and nitrogen application on chemical nutrition of plant and soil grown in Typic Ustifluvent soil

Study design: Factorial RBD

Place and duration of study: Field experiments was conducted in farmers holding in Kuttalam Block, Mayiladuthurai district. The experiment was conducted for two seasons

Methodology: Field experiments was conducted in farmers holding during kuruvai and samba seasons to. The treatments consists of silicon levels viz., 0, 50,100 and 150 kg ha-1 and nitrogen levels viz., 0, 50,100, 150 kg ha-1. using rice as test crop var. ADT43 and CR1009.The grain and straw yield was recorded at harvest. The grain and straw samples were analyzed for nutrient contents and corresponding uptake was calculated. The soil samples were analyzed for nutrient status at different physiological stages.

Results: The result revealed that graded doses of nitrogen and silicon applied alone or in combination caused significant improvement in rice yield over control. The rice yield reached its pinnacle (5600, 6786 kg ha-1) and straw yield (6811, 8031 kg ha-1) was noticed with 150 kg N ha-1 + 150 kg Si ha-1. However it was comparable with 150 kg N ha-1 + 100 kg Si ha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 + 150 kg Si ha-1. The uptake increased with nitrogen and silicon levels. The highest nutrient uptake was recorded with 150 kg N ha-1 + 150 kg Si ha-1. It was comparable with 150 kg N ha-1 + 100 kg Si ha-1. Available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and silicon increased with N and Si levels. The highest available N, P, K and Si was maximum when nitrogen and silicon was applied at 150 kg ha-1.

Conclusion:  Conjoint application of 150 kg N ha-1 and 150 kg Si ha-1 recommended to realize maximum yield of rice grown in soil low nitrogen and silicon

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 Challenging Period and Agriculture Sector in Sri Lanka: Way to Lead

Vilani Sachitra, Chandra Padmini

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 21-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v15i430160

Realizing the gravity of COVID-19 pandemic, the governments around the world have been putting in place a range of policies and strategies to resume their food security level. Among varies of agricultural productions, most affected sectors are livestock farming, horticulture production.  In this line, understanding the impact of COVID-19 on horticulture system is likely to become more widely and deeply felt in agricultural sectors and national economies. This study aims to highlight potential risks faced by; outlines the overall functioning of Sri Lankan horticulture sector during the COVID-19 pandemic and discuss policies need to change going forward to safeguard Sri Lankan horticulture sector from similar shocks in the future. The production and market data gathered from Agricultural Statistics, Hector Kobbekaduwa Agrarian Research and Training Institute (HARTI), Department of Census and Statistics and Export Development Board which were gathered over years between 2016 and 2020. The data contain production quantity, average cultivated extent, retail and wholesale price per Kg, export quantity and value of fruit and vegetable products. Descriptive analysis methods used as the primary analysis techniques. The results imply that there is no declining pattern of all vegetables and fruits production volume. From the retail prices and wholesale prices, we can materialize that the supply chains in the agricultural products have strained to keep up, first with panic buying, followed by forced changes in food consumption patterns and immediate declined with the dropdown in purchasing power. The agricultural export sector is seemed to experience smaller trade impacts, most agricultural exports have continued to reach consumers in international markets. The pandemic is driving some changes that will likely remain part of the future agricultural practices. These include encouraging home garden practices, shifts in online marketing and selling platform, having higher demand for stable and safe food, a greater awareness of supply chain risks, increasing use of digital trade systems and the risk of creeping protectionism. Accordingly, agriculture policies need to change to safeguard of Sri Lankan horticulture sector from similar shocks in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Cotton to Conservation Tillage Plus Wheat Straw Management and Nitrogen in Wheat Based Cropping System

Niamat Ullah Khan, Sami Ullah, Azhar Abbas Khan, Umbreen Shahzad

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 35-44
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v15i430161

Zero tillage straw retained with optimum N is an important strategy to increase soil fertility and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-cotton system.  A 3 years field experiment was conducted during 2014, 2015 and 2016 to study the impact of two tillage techniques [zero tillage plus wheat straw retained- ZTsr and conventional tillage-CT straw burnt (CTsb, with disc plow, tiller, rotavator, and leveling operations)] and four nitrogen rates namely 0, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha-1 on cotton yield and soil fertility. Results indicated that bolls/plant–1, weight per boll, seed cotton yields, lint percentage and N recovery efficiency were highest with 150 kg N ha–1. Interaction tillage into N indicated that ZTsr had graeter bolls plant-1, bolls weight, seed cotton yields, lint percentage and N recovery efficiency compared to CTsb. ZTsr had more soil organic matter (SOM) and total soil nitrogen (TSN) compared to CTsb. ZTsr with 150 kg nitrogen per hectare enhanced cotton yield and soil fertility on sustainable basis in arid environment of Dera Ismail Khan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Biosecurity in Confined Pig Farms in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas of Abidjan (Ivory Coast)

M. C. Kadja, S. Sourokou Sabi, A. Dago, F. X. Laleye, Y. Kane

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 45-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v15i430162

The purpose of this study is to assess the status of biosecurity measures in confined pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Abidjan in order to make recommendations for improving their sanitary conditions. This study was conducted in 76 confined pig farms in order to assess biosecurity practices. It consisted of administering a questionnaire to farmers in the urban and peri-urban areas of Abidjan. The analysis of the implementation of external biosecurity measures showed that 46.67% of the farms were not fenced, 85.20% were adjacent to other pig farms and the distance between them was less than 200m in 75.40% of cases. Similarly, 35.80% of the farms were located less than 100m from houses. Barriers to entry existed in 37.5% but only 2.8% and 8.82% of farms had signs for visitors and trucks and a vehicle disinfection device at the entrance respectively. Only 6.8% of the farms had foot baths at the entrance of the buildings. The vast majority of farmers stated that they quarantine new animals. The principles of internal biosecurity are very little respected. Workers wear work clothes on the majority of farms, but more than half of them go outside with them. The same working equipment is used in the different lodges without distinction of the age of the subjects and very little cleaned and disinfected. The disinfectants used are bleach and cresyl without any dilution standard. The presence of other animal species was noted and rodent control was not practised. The pathologies encountered are predominantly diarrhoea, and postweaning animals are the most affected.