Open Access Short communication

Historical Uses and Breeding Technologies of Protaetia brevitarsis surensis (Larvae for Food) for the Edible Insect Industry in South Korea

Mi-So Cho, Young-Son Cho

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i130168

We aim to review Protaetia brevitarsis surensis (PBS) with a specific focus on its historical uses and characteristics, making it one of the most viable food sources or medicinal materials. Ordinary PBS and food insects are characterized by low-emission, especially greenhouse gas, insect farming technologies in Republic of Korea. In addition, PBS is considered essentially acceptable for alternative insect food for human and effective environmental conservation in the near future.

Generally, PBS larvae have long been studied the most widely as edible and medicinal insects in Korea compared to the other countries. Almost one thousands farmers are breeding the PBS and the productivity range are very variable from 0.3 to 5.0 tons/person·per year.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Trichoderma Fortified Organic Amendments on Fusarium Wilt Suppression, Growth and Yield of Eggplant

V. Govardhan Rao, D. N. Dhutraj, K. D. Navgire, K. T. Apet

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i130163

Trichoderma harzianum is commonly used as effective biological control agent against phytopathogens especially the soil-borne fungi while some isolates are able to ameliorate plant growth. In the present study, Trichoderma fortified with different organic amendments were evaluated to reduce the pre-emergence and post-emergence seedling mortality, diseases of stem and root of eggplant caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae, a soil-borne fungal pathogen. Two experiments were set up, one at pot culture and second in the field under natural epiphytotic conditions. Among the nine Trichoderm harzianum fortified amendments tested, neem seed cake recorded significant and superior effect as pre-sowing soil application against Fusarium wilt with respect to seed germination (92.33%), pre-emergence seed rot (7.66%) and post-emergence seedling mortality (15.33%) in pot culture. However, cotton cake recorded least efficacy in all respect. Similar trend observed in wilt incidence under field experiments during autumn 2018 (17.47%) and 2019 (18.60%) with T. harzianum fortified neem cake soil application against Fusarium wilt with mean inhibition of disease incidence (58.43%) and also observed excellent enhancement of mean yield (54.63%). It is observed that organic amendment at higher concentrations further increase the microbial populations and stimulate the microbial activity in soil against Fusarium oxysporum resulted to decrease the pathogen populations. Moreover, yield and yield related attributes increased remarkably due to fortified amendments providing adequate nutrient reservoir to the bioagents thereby enhancing its survival in a hostile environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Synthetic Insecticides for the Management of Helicoverpa Armigera Mill in Tomato Production

John Manu, J.V.K Afun

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 17-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i130164

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of synthetic insecticides in managing Helicoverpa armigera Mill in tomato production. The experiment was conducted during the major and minor tomato growing seasons at the Sekyere Kumawu and Asante Akim North districts in Ghana. The experimental design was a 3 x 5 factorial randomized complete block with four replications. Four insect pest control regimes were evaluated for their effectiveness in controlling the tomato fruit borer. Three tomato varieties were used in this experiment. The results showed that, significantly, higher marketable fruit yields were obtained on the sprayed plots than the control plots. In general, the variety “pectomec” suffered the highest yield loss on the water sprayed field, followed by UC 82 and lastly, power rhino, although all the varieties suffered losses greater than 50%. This shows that none of the varieties used for this study is completely resistant to Helicoverpa armigera. Yields were generally higher in the major season (March-July) than in the minor season (September-December) for pectomec and power rhino. The best insecticides are Oxymatrin (2.4%), Lambda-cyhalothrin (2.5%) and Dimethoate (400g/l) +Cypermethrin (36g/l) in descending order. Contrarily, UC 82 had low yields in the major season than in the minor season. The study recommends that Helicoverpa armigera Mill should be controlled with pesticides to improve yields of tomato.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Natural and Synthetic Mulches on Yield and Yield Attributing Parameters of Chili (Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae)

Rajesh Neupane, Subin Babu Neupane, Bhawana Acharya, Shikshya Parajuli, Nischal Oli, Ram Hari Timilsina

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i130165

Aims: Production of chili (Capsicum annuum Linnaeus; Solanaceae) in rain-fed regions of Nepal during the winter is constrained by the limited availability of soil moisture. Mulching has been a proven tool to conserve soil moisture and enhance yield. A field study was conducted in the winter of 2019 to identify the most suitable mulch that enhances the yield and yield attributing parameters of chili.

Study Design: Seven treatments with three replications were evaluated under the randomized complete block design. Among the treatments, rice straw (5 kg/plot) and water reed (5 kg/plot) were used as natural mulches. While, plastic mulches: transparent (25 µ), silver (25 µ), black (25 µ), and black thick (50 µ) (double thickness) were used as synthetic mulches. Only soil with no mulch was the control.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Bangau, Dang, Nepal from November 2019 to May 2020.

Methodology: We measured soil temperature at 10 cm depth using soil thermometer, and calculated soil moisture through oven dry method. Similarly, weight of ten fresh and ten dry fruits was recorded from each plot using an electronic scale. Number of fruits per plant was also counted. All the data were analyzed using ANOVA and means were separated following a post hoc test.

Results: The highest soil moisture (18.38%), number of fruits per plant (24.91), fruit fresh weight per ten fruits (59.86 g), and fruit dry weight per ten fruits (14.65 g) were recorded in black thick plastic mulched plots. Furthermore, the lowest fresh weed weight (95.30 g) was also measured in black thick plastic mulched plots. Whereas, the highest soil temperature (18.92°C) was recorded in transparent plastic mulched plots.

Conclusion: This study concludes black thick plastic as the most effective among the treatments tested in this study in enhancing yield and yield attributing parameters of chili.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey of Tomato Farmers and their Knowledge on Fruit Borers (Helicoverpa Armigera Mill) in Kumawu of Sekyere Kumawu and Agogo of Asante Akim North Districts in Ghana

John Manu, J. V. K. Afun, Charles Kwoseh

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 38-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i130166

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a popular and important crop as it is consumed worldwide. It serves as a source of nutrients such as vitamins A and C. In Ghana, tomato production contributes to agricultural GDP, employment creation and foreign exchange earnings. However, tomato production is faced with challenges that hamper productivity. This has been attributed mainly to attacks by pests such as fruit borers. Therefore, this study was conducted to ascertain the characteristics of tomato farmers in Sekyere Kumawu and Asante Akim North districts in Ghana and their knowledge on fruit borers. Structured questionnaires were administered to gather data from sixty respondents who were sampled through a multistage sampling technique. Results from the survey showed male dominance in commercial tomato production in both districts with an average age of 43 years, which falls within the active working age group. Majority of the farmers indicated that they were into tomato production for commercial purposes, and practice sole cropping. More than 60% of the farmers revealed the fruit borer as a major pest causing yield losses of about 27% on average on their farms. Moreover, it was found that majority of the respondents control the fruit borer with synthetic chemicals.