Open Access Original Research Article

An Ecological Review of Romanian Philatelic Postage Stamps in Relation to Forest Fruits

Bogdan-Vasile Cioruța, Mirela Coman, Alexandru Leonard Pop

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i330174

Forest products play a vital role in our lives in many ways we can imagine. Berries, for example, are still an important source of food, being of real use in defining a healthy diet and natural medicine. To show that there have been and still are concerns regarding the highlighting of the role of berries in the community, we set out, through this study, to analyze their entire Romanian philatelic history. Thus, through this study, we chose to index, analyze and highlight a series of philatelic issues, which appeared exclusively in Romania, since 1964, which make direct reference to berries. Most of the analyzed materials present the berries in the foreground, as independent postage stamps, but there are also exceptions to the rule. Some stamps capture only the theme tangentially, their illustration reflecting forest fauna species. Also, berries are treated both in direct relation to the fauna species that have berries as a preferential menu, and as part of another unique theme, medicinal plants. On all of this philatelic issues, we set out to make a brief presentation, going from postage stamps to first-day covers (FDCs) and then to maximum postcards and other circulated pieces.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analyzing the Growth and Performance of Agriculture Sector in Nepal

Sitesh Jha, Bibek Singh, Deepa Poudel, Shuvam Shingh, Preeya Tiwari, Prachur Shrestha

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 22-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i330175

Agriculture is the backbone of Nepalese economy but higher poverty, constant trade deficit and erratic inflation rate has led to the shrinkage of agriculture share in the national GDP from 27.59% in last fiscal year to 26.98% in this fiscal year. Agriculture production rate is increasing at an average rate of 2.7% but is expected to grow at 5.1% this year due to the better monsoon. Nepal shares 0.66%, 0.27%,0.22% and 0.4% in global production of rice, wheat, maize and pulses respectively in the year 2018-19. The production of oilseeds has increased to 9.89% in 2018-19 from 4.68% in 2014-15. The minimal increment to 0.36% in 2018-19 from 0.3% in 2008-09 is noticed in case of production of vegetables. The share of Nepal in global production of fruit is only 0.16% in 2018-19 after increment from 0.1% in 2008-09. The share of Nepal in global milk production is very low i.e.0.247% though dairy sector is in prosperous state in Nepal. After adopting different suggestive measures better growth can be attained in the agriculture sector. The agriculture sector is in booming stage with the help of different government policies. An integrated sustainable approach is necessary to increase the income of people involved in agriculture sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Rice Mutant Line against Two Widely Grown Rice Cultivar in Mymensingh Region of Bangladesh

M. A. Rouf, N. A. Khan, M. L. A. Mueez, N. I. Toma, S. Mahmud, N. Nahar

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 41-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i330176

Growth performance, yield components and total grain yield of a rice mutant lines were evaluated againest two popular rice varieties on farm experiments within five different upazila of Mymensingh region to find out the better cultivar on the besis of yield and duration. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The study was conducted for two consecutive season that ensure the stability of the mutant line. The results revealed that the cultivar RM(2)-40-©-4-2-8 was recorded highest effective tiller and maximum filled grain in most of the location. Among the all cultivar RM(2)-40-©-4-2-8 was recorded maximum grain yield in most of the location for two consecutive year which was statistically significant from other cultivar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assembling Blockchain and IoT for Smart Food-Supply Chain

Utsab Mukherjee, Shawni Dutta, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 49-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i330177

Globalization and extreme competition in the market have made the food supply chain more complex than before.  To address the complexities in the food supply chain, blockchain has become more evident than the traditional ways. Use of blockchain technologies can ensure the efficiency, transparency and reliability of the food supply chain starting from the farms to forks. This study focuses on the applicability of blockchain systems to the agriculture field and provides comparative analysis among the existing methodologies that are dedicated to uplift the security, effectiveness and reliability of blockchain based food supply chains. This research has also proposed a novel model that couples blockchain and IoT based sensor modules, which can be applicable in real-life scenarios. The proposed method essentially follows a multi-layer architecture where each layer is presented by means of a blockchain technology. Each layer is fed by the ambient conditions which may impact better quality of crops. The IoT module will ensure better farming as well as the blockchain system will ensure the quality of the end product. If the packaged food degrades in quality, the reason behind the degradation can be located by the model presented in this paper. The presented framework may reach promising efficiency in practical life but the framework implementation cost may create a burden for the investors.

Open Access Original Research Article

From Home-produced to Store-bought- How Lifes Changing: Consumption of Milk and Milk Products through Decades

Yamini Bhatt, Kalpana Kulshrestha

Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, Page 59-67
DOI: 10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i330178

Aims: This study aimed present a comprehensive picture of trends in the consumption pattern of milk and milk products with the objective to determine the shift in their consumption through different decades and locations. 

Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Methodology: The study was conducted in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand. The sample population comprised of both male and female subjects between the age group of 15 years to 55 onwards. The respondents were categorized into three age groups range as- 15-35 years, 36-55 years, and above 56 years. Starting from the age of 5 years, each age group is also categorized decade-wise. Being descriptive in nature the study was carried out through a field survey method using face-to-face interviews. 

Results: The results showed that during earlier decades, milk was consumed daily by the majority of the population depending upon the fact that it was produced by the domesticated cattle and easily available. However, a high frequency of daily consumption was observed among the 15-35 years of age group, though it was more of purchased from store or dairy. Curd, however, was earlier prepared by milk produced at home, now mostly prepared at home from milk bought from stores or dairy. The practice of preparing buttermilk and butter/ghee milk products daily from the milk produced by domesticated cattle is experiencing a great drop, especially in the rural areas. Paneer (Indian cottage cheese) has got popular in the past few decades, though its consumption is highly dependent upon the location and economic condition of the household. 

Conclusion: There is a great need for promoting cattle rearing and dairy farming for increasing production and consumption of home-produced healthy products from milk. Making people aware of the dietary requirements of milk and milk products during various life stages is also of prime importance.