The study looked into what prompted certain small-scale arable farmers in Nigeria to market their produces. As commercialization becomes more and more lauded as a model for rural development, many smallholders' capacity to do so is called into doubt. The objective of the study was to analyse the factors influencing the decision of smallholder farmers to commercialize the selected arable crops. Eighty Five smallholder farmers were randomly sampled for this study, which estimated farmers’ level of crop commercialization and identified factors contributing to their estimated engagement with markets. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain primary data from farmers, while reports from published materials were also reviewed. The study utilized the household commercialization index (HCI) and multiple regression model as its main analytical tools. The result of the commercialization index revealed that, among all crops grown, Cassava had the highest percentage of 54.68% with the lowest value of 6.83% for yam production. Empirical results revealed that farm size, Use of Hired Labour, use of inorganic fertilizer, improved farm profit and Enhanced total crop output, are all important drivers of crop commercialization. Thus, the study recommended that farmers should be empowered through credits and loans schemes in order to cultivate more hectares of land. Finally, farmers should be oriented by the extension agents on new methods of production, to avoid misuse of inorganic fertilizer, and to encourage them to sell rather than consume more of their crop output to increase their income level.
Salinity stress negatively affects the growth and development of wheat leading to diminished grain yield and quality. Salt stress during the reproductive stage is one of the significant factors leading to the drastic reduction in grain yield. The objective of this study was to investigate the biochemical responses of pre-anthesis stage salt stress and yield-related traits in the KRL1-4 salt tolerant and UP2338 salt-sensitive cultivar of wheat. Three different levels of salinity stress (100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl) were induced. Untreated plants were kept in control. Samples were analyzed at pre- anthesis stage (50 DAS and 60 DAS) for various biochemical parameters viz., proline content, total reducing sugar content, total nitrogen content and total protein content. Yield-related traits harvest index, tiller numbers per plant, spike height and spike weight were recorded at the maturity stage. The amount of proline and reducing sugar increased with increasing salinity, the increase being more tolerant than in sensitive cultivar. Total nitrogen and total protein content, however, decreased with increasing salt concentration and reduction being more sensitive than in tolerant cultivar. Yield attributes were affected negatively. The effect was more pronounced in sensitive cultivars compared to tolerant ones.
Aims: The application of a huge number of chemical fertilizers for crop production alters the sustainability of the environment and creates pollution. This problem can be minimized by the application of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB). Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are beneficial bacteria that promote plant growth and development through a variety of mechanisms. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted at the department of Soil Science, BSMRAU to investigate the effect of different PGPB isolates on growth, nutrient content, and uptake by rice.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out following a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replicates. Twenty bacterial isolates were used as treatments with a control treatment. Thirty-five days old seedlings of rice were inoculated with different bacterial isolates for thirty minutes and planted in a plastic pot. Broth culture was applied at one-month intervals and crops were harvested 65 days after planting.
Results: Experimental results disclose that application of PGPB isolates resulted in a significant increase in plant height, SPAD value, root length, root volume, straw fresh weight, straw dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight, nutrient content and uptake by the rice plant compare to control. The highest values of most of the parameters were recorded from the plant inoculated with the isolate BU Ls 28.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that the use of PGPB isolate BU Ls 28 might be used as a suitable inoculant for rice production due to the ability of this isolate to promote plant growth.
This study aimed to the development of a device for improve on parboiling techniques for rice farmers in Cameroon. The design and construction were carried out using an empty 0.2 m³ metal oil drum for the parboiler, which is made up of the soaking (0.1585 m³) and steaming (0.0919 m³) chambers with capacities of 0.1585 m³ and 0.0919 m³, respectively. The two chambers were divided by a perforated floor of 0.26 m². The performance of the developed parboiling device were compared with those traditional and industrial methods of parboiling. A water uptake test was carried out and a panel subjective test was used to compare the sensory and cooking quality of the rice for the developed parboiler, traditional and industrial parboiling methods. Results from this study showed that the developed parboiler used 2.5 kg of firewood to parboil 50 kg of rice in 2 hours 15 minutes at a soaking and steaming temperatures of 90 and 95°C respectively. The traditional parboiler used 9.8 kg of wood to parboil 50 kg of rice in 3 hours at a steaming temperature of 105°C. Panels’ assessment showed that the quality of rice parboiled with the developed parboiler was good compared to the traditional and industrial methods. Overall results showed a significant improvement, less time of operation and a cheaper cost using the developed parboiler. This study concluded that there is no significant difference in the water uptake of the rice parboiled using the three parboilers at varying temperatures (P = .05). This developed parboiler is 5.4 times more efficient and 4 times greater in its construction cost than the traditional one. Local materials were valorized and the device was improved by the stove and the parboiler accessories which most parboiling devices do not have.
Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is an important oil seed and grain legume crop in the world and a perspective high potential crop in Bangladesh. It belongs to the family Leguminosae, sub-family papilionaceae and genus Glycine. An experiment was conducted with 14 genotypes of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) to study the variability, correlation coefficient, and path analysis. Analysis of variance for each trait showed significant differences among the genotypes. The genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were close to each other for all the characters except the leaf area index, indicating the minor environmental influence on the expression of these characters. High heritability associated with high genetic advance in percent of mean was observed for leaf area index, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, and yield, which pointed out that selection for these characters, would be effective. The significant positive correlation with seed yield was found in pod length and 100 seed weight which revealed that selection based on these traits would improve yield ultimately. Path coefficient analysis evidenced that 50% flowering, pod length, days to 1st pod maturity, number of seed per plant and 100 seed weight had a positive direct effect on yield per plant. Therefore, importance must be given to these characters in further breeding programs to improve soybean yield.