Rainfall is the main contributor to provide soil moisture for rainfed rice (Transplanted Aman) cultivation. The aim of the study was to investigate the seed quality of different transplanted Aman rice cultivars that are influenced by rainfed during ripening phases. For this, several experiments have been performed during the transplanted Aman season of 2014, 2015, and 2016 at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur. Two planting dates and three rice varieties were used in the treatment, and the treatments were organized in a randomized complete block design with three replications. T. Aman rice received huge rainfall up to vegetative phage resulting no irrigation demand in all three tested years. In all the parameters of yield and yield components, the association between planting dates and variety was not significant. Also the relationship between planting dates and variety did not greatly affect the germination percentage, seedling vigor index, high density grain shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. Sixteen august planting produced a greater number of tillers m-2, panicles m-2, grain panicle-1, 1000-grain weight, grain and straw yield in the case of yield and yield components. While, the 1000-grain weight of panicles m-2, grain panicle-1, was greatly influenced by the variety. The highest 1000 grain weight and grain yield were produced by BRRI dhan46. The SVI, HDG percent, SDW and RDW were greatly influenced by planting dates in terms of seed quality. All of these criteria were higher for planting on 16 August than for planting on 12 September. Early transplanting received more rainfall in reproductive phase than late planting. Varieties were greatly influenced by all the seed quality parameters. BRRI dhan46 received the highest GM percent, SVI, HDG percent, SDW and RDW. Specific suitable transplanting dates were selected considering minimum irrigation at reproductive phage and maximun seed quality and grain yield. Delay in transplanting demanded more irrigation and reduced seed quality and grain yield.
Agro-morphological characters in 34 populations of Iranian Trifolium resupinatum L. germplasm, were investigated. 24 traits for each accession were evaluated according to white clover and forage legume descriptors. Data were analyzed by SPSS and Excel softwares. Statistical tendency parameters for agro-morphological characters were calculated. A cluster analysis based on morphological traits separate populations in two different groups that in one cluster there was an only accession belongs to Kurdestan locality. Factor analysis have shown that 61/24% of collection variations were expressed by six factors. Leaflet shape, calyx trichome, the length of leaflet and inflorescence diameter were the most important morphological characters and the weight of 1000 seeds, number of days until to flowering were significant agricultural traits. . Based on these results, it seems that variation in germplasms is independent to geographical distribution. This research showed that there is a high biodiversity for this species in Iran due to the diverse environmental conditions, so that be useful for breeding programs and marketing.
In the present research article, Trichoderma species was isolated and multiplied on a growth medium without contamination for compost preparation. The aim of this study was detecting organic substrates of Trichoderma spp. for their antagonistic ability, for this purpose six major agricultural fields of Kota district are selected , from each field about 3-3 samples of soil are collected to detect the percentage of fungal disease incidence and tricho-compost was applied over diseased plants to minimize the fungal attack over vegetable crops. It was observed that the disease incidence is minimized by using tricho-compost mixed with soil in Gopalpura and Balita Village.
Local rice processing by small scale agro-processor has suffered tremendous setback ranging from stone presence and foreign materials in processed rice. It has become critical to develop a domestic rice de-stoning machine that can be utilized by small scale agro-processors. As a result of these bottlenecks this paper has focused on developing a destoning machine that utilizes water medium for stone separation. The design was built using locally accessible materials. Major components of the machine being reservoir, hopper, de-stoning chamber, washing chamber, impeller, water filter, and brush drum. The developed de-stoning machine was powered by a 1.8 kW variable electric motor that communicated the rotating motion of the driving pulley to the driven pulley, which was supported by bearings, through a V-belt. The machine was developed and evaluated for its efficiencies with respect to stone separation and rice cleaning using 2 kg clean rice with 20 incorporated small stones of different sizes. It was discovered that 2 kg/10minutes and 20.04 kg/hour of processed rice were de-stoned at a speed of 400 rpm, which is the optimal speed for maximum separation process. The de-stoning machine's effectiveness in terms of stone removal is approximately approaching 100 percent free of impurities. This discovery elucidates the potential to deal with the challenges of stone removal from locally produced rice using hand and manual method, which are inefficient, time and energy consuming, therefore this developed machine acts as a rice processing industry innovation.
Tiger nuts are one of the healthy sources to substitute for many consumer products such as cow milk and gluten. This study aimed to enhance the use of tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) as main raw material in the production of yoghurt. Phytochemical analyses were carried out and sensory parameters were evaluated. 1 kg of tiger nuts followed chronological steps to produce 2 liters of milk. These steps were: sorting and weighing, soaking, grinding using a blender, filtration through a polyethylene filter, pasteurization, packaging and filling at hot in polyethylene bottles then rapid cooling. The resulting milk went through a process to produce 2 liters of tiger nuts yoghurt. This process consisted of the following steps: pasteurization, cooling, inoculation, mixing and homogenization using a spatula, incubation 6 hours, packaging and storage. Tiger nuts yoghurt was served chilled to untrained panelists for sensory analyses. The results of this study showed that 100 g of tiger nuts yoghurt contain 4.4±0.1 g protein, 1.9±0.06 g fat, 5.7±0.0 pH, 3.7±0.07 g sugar, 1.3±0.02 g fiber, 140±3.00 mg potassium, 126±2.00 mg calcium, 12.1±0.70 mg magnesium, 43±1.00 mg sodium, 0.40±0.01 mg zinc, 176±1.00 mg phosphorus, 0.001±0.1 mg vitamin A and 0.3±0.00 mg vitamin C. The overall acceptability of yogurt showed that 35% of panelists like the product very much while, 65% moderately like the product; this indicates that the product is highly valued. In order to improve the value addition of tiger nuts, the optimization of tiger nuts milk extraction can be done using a machine.